DIJANA METLIĆ
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Novi Sad, Srbija
dijana.metlic@uns.ac.rs
NATALIJA SIMIĆ
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Novi Sad, Srbija
simicnatalij@gmail.com

REFLEKSIJA MOMENTA: dekonstrukcija intimnog u fotografiji Frančeske Vudman
REFLECTION OF MOMENT: Deconstruction of the Intimate in the Photography of Francesca Woodman

Zbornik 14/2018 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 60-69

Kategorija članka: pregledni rad

UDK:
77.04.071.1:929 Vudman F.
75.036.2

Apstrakt:
U radu će se analizirati dva različita odnosa prema ženskom telu – onaj koga uspostavljaju slikarke impresionizma Berta Moriso (Berthe Morisot) i Meri Kasat (Mary Cassatt), s jedne strane, i onaj koji, nasuprot njima, problematizuje fotografkinja Frančeska Vudman tokom osme decenije dvadesetog veka. Na taj način pokušavamo da pratimo razvoj identiteta u odnosu na svet u kome nastaje, posmatrajući ga kao mesto determinacije savremene subjektivnosti. U fokusu je analiza razvoja ženske subjektivnosti na relaciji telo−društvo−umetnost. Esej želi da pokrene pitanje o igri pogled / doživljaj pogleda, kroz uspostavljenu relaciju između ženskog tela i prostora u kome se pojavljuje, kako na primerima odabranih impresionističkih slika, tako i na primeru fotografija Frančeske Vudman. Uspostavljenim okvirom skreće se pažnja na binarne opozicije intimno−javno, dozvoljeno−zabranjeno kroz shvatanje tela kao praga za razumevanje sopstva u (prividno) izmenjenim društvenim okolnostima druge polovine XIX i druge polovine XX veka. U tom smislu, od posebnog je značaja naizmenična igra konstrukcije i dekonstrukcije telesnog posredstvom ogledala. Ono menja svoju funkciju od upotrebnog predmeta u impresionizmu do kultnog u radovima Frančeske Vudman. Na samom kraju, tekst pokušava da odgovori na pitanje da li se kroz proces suočavanja sa sopstvenim odrazom u ogledalu dolazi do oslobađanja od pritisaka istog ili, kako tvrdi Žak Lakan, „faza ogledala ilustruje konfliktnu prirodu dvojnog odnosa“.

Ključne reči:
Frančeska Vudman, impresionizam, ogledalo, refleksija, intimno, dekonstrukcija

Summary:
In this paper we analyse two different approaches towards female body – the one in the works of the Impressionist painters Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt and the other in the photography of Francesca Woodman during the 1970s. We examine the development of female identity and how it was shaped by the specific social conditions during the 19th and 20th centuries. In the works of Morisot and Cassatt, women are represented as a part of their households, excluded from all major social events, with emphasis on their isolation, solitude and the lack of communication. Women are often depicted while resting, dressing, combing or rehearsing the pose in front of the mirror, staying at home as an “inferior race”. They are rarely represented in theatres, where they feel vulnerable to a compromising male gaze. In her photo series House (1976) and Self-deceit (1978), Francesca Woodman approaches female subjectivity in a radically new way: she questions her identity so as to break established and wellpreserved boundaries of ideological spaces of femininity.

Discussing the binary opposition private–public, feminine–masculine, Woodman often uses a mirror as mobile paraphernalia, carrying it with her through deserted rooms of Victorian houses. Her fragmented reflection and hidden face question the implicated sexual attractiveness of an invisible female model, which is typically regarded as a passive object of male pleasure. Her naked blurred body merges with the surrounding or is obscured by peeling wallpapers. She is often on the verge of disappearing, evading the slightest possibility of being caught in a fixed identity. As an extremely progressive feminine voice, Francesca Woodman seeks to escape Morisot and Cassattʼs historical formation of sexed and classed subjects, and succeeds in breaking the conventional representation of women as mere objects of beauty. She dismisses banal narratives and examines the limits of her own body, revealing new opportunities for women and their future artistic activity.

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