Zbornik 8 / 2012 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti. Online)
ISSN 2466-460X (Online)
ISSN 0522-8328 (Štampano izdanje)
PDF štampanog izdanja (14.0 MB)
Glavni i odgovorni urednik: mr LJiljana Miletić Abramović
Urednik broja: Mila Gajić
dr Saša Brajović
dr Ivana Jevtić
mr LJiljana Miletić Abramović
Sekretar redakcije broja: Jelena PopovićSvi tekstovi u rubrikama Prilozi, Polemike, Kritike i Prikazi se recenziraju.
Sadržaj Zbornika 8 / 2012 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti. Online)
LATE ANTIQUE AND EARLY BYZANTINE GLASS FROM GRADINA IN POSTENJE
Od posuda su uglavnom sačuvani mali i pojedinačni delovi, tako da nijedna posuda nije sačuvana u potpunosti. Najbrojnije su zdele i pehari, dok su ulomci boca, odnosno, krčaga kao i lampi nađeni u manjem broju. Posude su najvećim delom načinjene slobodnim duvanjem stakla, a samo u dva slučaja ukras je dobijen duvanjem u kalup. Najveći broj načinjen je od zelenog, odnosno maslinastozelenog (oko 50%) i bezbojnog (oko 32%) stakla, a pojedini i od žućkastog, belog i plavičastog stakla. Staklene posude su uglavnom bile neukrašene, a postojeća dekoracija, sačuvana na samo nekoliko fragmenata, sastojala se od urezanih linija, apliciranih kapi ili niti i reljefnih rebara.
Od ukupnog broja nađenih ulomaka stakla na Gradini u Postenju više od polovine čine delovi prozorskih okana (oko 60%). Oni su najčešće nalaženi pojedinačno, mada je u nekoliko slučajeva veći broj (najviše 15 fragmenata), od jednog okna, bio skoncentrisan na istom mestu. Većinom su načinjeni od bezbojnog (oko 43%), belog (18%) i zelenog stakla (15%), dok se fragmenti plavog i žutog prozorskog stakla javljaju u manjem broju.
Od ukrasnih predmeta od stakla nađena su samo dva, uložak od zelenog i perla od crnog stakla.
Judging by the high number of glass vessels in Gradina in Postanje that is present on a number of sites during the 4th century and the beginning of the 5th century, and in some of the 5th and the 6th century layers too, the continuity of life can be proven in Gradina in Postanje in the 5th century, though this horizon has not been established yet on this site in architectural pre–building and restoration of objects. The limited number of vessels of a simple type and of a relatively uniform glass colour in Gradina in Postanje indicates local production. Though it has not been proven yet in the settlement itself, local production could have existed, as in some settlements of Late Antiquty – Mitrovica / Sirmium, Gamzigrad / Romuliana – or as in some Early Byzantine settlements (In Caricin grad, for example, a group of bricks are in situ in a circular or semi-circular shape, which might have been a part of a furnace; furthermore, fragments of a massive dome-shaped vessel that might have been part of a retort were also found, which could serve as proof for the existence of glass making. In Gornji Streoci on Kosovo the raw materials for glass making were found).
Gradina in Postanje is one of a large number of hillside settlements that have been identified on the territory of Serbia, but glass is found on and published about only a few. Although a relatively small number of glass vessel types have been found in Gradina in Postanje, similar types have been found in other Late Antiquity and Early Byzantine sites in Serbia and neighbouring countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Greece), where an assortment of similar glass vessels were used.
RELIQUARY OF DESPOTISSA BARBARA FRANKOPAN BRANKOVIC
Contribution to the Study
As the inscriptions had not been read or had been read incorrectly in older literature, not shading any light on the origin of the idea and the period of creation, a new research lasting several days was conducted during 2011. Following a close analysis of the reliquary, thirty eight inscriptions in Old Serbian and Greek languages were found, and the inscriptions from the lost frames, recorded in the sources and photo documentation, were added as thirty ninth and fortieth. The paper gives an analysis of the reliquary, reconstruction of the original organization of the relics (based on the old photographs and descriptions from 1648), copy of all inscriptions and formats of thirty – two preserved frames. New readings provide correction to all previous editions and this is the first time that all inscriptions on the existing frames have been read, including not so visible inscription on the rim of the panaghiarion.
Paleographic analysis has shown that five different engravers have been engraving the inscriptions. The first craftsman has done the engraving on the back of the panaghiarion (No. 15) and the holy relics frame (No. 30). The second has done the most of engraving (No. 1-5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 18, 19, 22-29, 33-38, 40) and engraving on the rim of the panaghiarion (No. 15). The third has done the engraving on the frames No. 6, 7, 31 and 39, the fourth on the frames No. 20 and 32, while the fifth has done engraving in Greek on the frame No. 14.
Although it is a view in historiography that the reliquary got its present shape after the holy relics had been taken to the West, iconographic analogies with the motif of elliptical vines on the reliquaries and icons with the themes of celebrating the Holy Mother, being present in Eastern cult practice and art since the middle of the 15th century, point to this direction for the further research of the reliquary of Despotissa Barbara.
Prilog poznavanju povijesti ranih satova s njihalom
A. FROMANTEEL BRACKET CLOCK
Contribution to understanding the history of early pendulum clocks
PORPHYRY VASES OF THE ROYAL PALACE ON DEDINJE
The vases are the finest examples of the Neoclassical style of French applied art, the signature mark of the most prosperous part of the reign of Louis XV. Identical in size, material and modeling, they were made in the shape of a cup on a base, encrusted with gilded drapes, with cast iron handles in the shape of lions. Gilded leaves with the bodies of two snakes coiled around make the base of the vase core.
The powerful sculptoral decoration of the vases emphasizes exactly their complex symbolism. Thus, the figures of lions glorify the profane and sacral power of the sovereign, pointing out as well the constant alertness of the guardians of his power and strength. As the symbols of the beginning and the end, the eternal cycle of birth and death, the representation of snakes coiled around the foot may be interpreted in the sense of the transient nature of time and destiny as well as the sovereign's power that can overcome everything.
Judging by their artistic modeling and sculptural decoration, it is assumed that the porphyry vases were ordered by an aristocrat, or were a part of the decorating concept of a royal palace space. Porphyry as a symbol of the sovereign's dignity – decorated with figural representations, symbols of the sovereign's power and strength and their everlasting nature – is a piece of art which could have been created in the framework of the politics of the sovereign's presentation.
As such, the vases represent highly valuable pieces of art and they certainly held a significant place within the framework of the politics of the Yugoslav monarch's presentation.
ARTWORK OF VIENNESE PAINTER ANTON KOTHGASSER IN ZAGREB
Vizuelna dekoracija kao odraz ideja bračne harmonije i privatno – javnog jevrejskog identiteta
SEPHARDIC PRINTED KETUBBOT ON THE BALKANS
Pictorial decorations as a reflection of the ideas of marital harmony and the duality of private and public in Jewish community's identity
Ketubbot made by the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century became serial printed prototypes, which support the ideal of contemporary civil state and modern society. They were produced all over the Balkans in lithographic printing offices. Their visual forms inherited the old tradition of representing the triumphal arch with symbolic decoration.
They carry Jewish symbols like Magen David, Decalogue, or menorah, but also include state symbols like Serbian coat of arms, as well as emblematic pictograms of civil marriage and marital harmony like Concordia Maritalis, then putto and symbols of love - hearts. The illustration of this thesis is the examples of ketubbot printed in large Balkan cities: Belgrade, Sarajevo, Sophia and Thessaloniki from the end of XIX century to the beginning of XX.
By replacing illuminated ketubbot with serial lithographic prints, Balkan Jews were participating in the contemporary social trends, but also creating their own visual culture, according to their personal needs. Holding on consistently to the emphasizing of an outstanding identity, they enriched visual decoration of ritual items by incorporating novelties in the manner of actual styles and contemporary achievements of Fin de siècle. The acceptance of social norms of wider community and civil concept of marriage, influenced the choice of visual representations, which found their place on ketubbot, bridging the gap between traditional and contemporary on the turn of the century.
RENTAL APARTMENTS FOR THE POOR CITIZENS OF BELGRADE, 1919 – 1941
Being a rentier was an occupation that was profitable and provided social status and power. Big rentiers were the owners of luxurious apartments available to a small circle of better off citizens, but they also owned dilapidated buildings and apartments that they leased to the poor citizens of Belgrade. Not so rich rentiers mostly had the latter tenants. There was also a number of “landladies” and “landlords” who were not rentiers by occupation, but who increased their modest profits by leasing a small apartment in the courtyard, basement or shed. One form of poor people's “rentier business” was subleasing a part of the apartment, most often a room.
The tenants of small and substandard, but expensive apartments and rooms, were poor families and singles, junior civil servants, pensioners, craftsmen, workers and many others. There were also pre-war citizens of Belgrade, those who were looking for employment in the capital city of the newly formed Kingdom, migrant workers, Russian refugees and foreigners, together with a large number of half - literate, unqualified and poor village population newly arrived to Belgrade.
The apartments were small in size and had insufficient cubic capacity of air per room. They were overcrowded, often consisting of a kitchen and a room, or one room. They were damp, badly lit and without sunlight, cold and with no fresh air, negatively affecting the tenants health. Even today, these courtyard buildings that housed the poorbetween the two world wars can be found in the streets of Dorćol, Savamala, Čubura, Voždovac, Zvezdara, Lekino Brdo or Bulbulder.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF NATURE AND CULTURE IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF ALDEN B. DOW
A. Dow studied architecture at Columbia University (1927- 1931), where the academic approach still dominated. He was, on the other hand, drawn towards styles that preferred placing function over form, such as the Arts and Crafts Movement (F. L. Wright in particular), Japanese and modern architecture. During his rich career, starting in late 1920s, Dow, as a part of Midwestern Modern, developed his own distinctive synthesis of styles believing that architecture had to be one with nature and a created environment that stimulated the advancement and the individuality of people who used it. He has designed hundreds of buildings ranging from residential to commercial, educational, religious and civic structures. Although most of them are located in Midland and in Michigan, his buildings are also found in many other parts of the US.
This article focuses on his residential buildings and is based on the research in the Alden B. Dow Archives, housed in A. B. Dow Home and Studio, a National Historic Landmark, and on the analyses of 16 Midland homes.
COMIC BOOK OEUVRE OF ALEKSANDAR HECL
Primenom kulturološkog i ikonološkog metoda, analiziran je dostupni materijal i izvršena je podela Heclovog opusa na rani i pozni period. Istraživanje je imalo za cilj da ukaže na značaj i vrednost, kako stripova, tako i celokupnog umetničkog stvaralaštva Aleksandra Hecla, posebno na njegov crtački postupak; da rehabilituje opus ovog umetnika kome je 1991, posthumno, dodeljena ULUPUDS-ova nagrada za životno delo.
U radu je dat hronološki pregled svih Heclovih stripova, nastalih u periodu od 1956. do 1984 godine, uz likovnu i ideološku analizu pojedinih ostvarenja, razmatranje njihovog mesta na domaćoj strip-sceni i značaja koji su imali za njen razvoj. Osim toga razmotren je i uticaj celokupnog Heclovog stvaralaštva na mlađe generacije strip-crtača i ilustratora.
U širem kontekstu, bavljenje Heclovim stvaralaštvom razvija svest o stripu kao značajnoj umetničkoj kategoriji i o potrebi njegovog integrisanja i proučavanja u okviru opštih istorijsko-umetničkih tokova.
Hecl's work that could have been accessed has been analyzed applying cultural and iconological method and has been divided into early period and later period. A specific drawing technique and gradual development of style towards more free drawing, stylized form and more free treatment of basic comic book elements are common characteristics of these two periods. Stylistically, Hecl's comic books follow the maintrends on the national comic book scene; in his later work he has been one of the heralds of a new comic book graphic style and his drawing technique has had a direct impact on younger artists.
Hecl's comic books, especially those from his later period, represent an important segment in the transition of domestic comic book from classical realism to new modern form. He was one of the most outstanding realists, but also one of the doyens of a new comic book technique of the 1970s and 1980s. His comic book oeuvre has yet to be analyzed thoroughly.
In a broader sense context, analyzing Hecl's work helps to develop understanding of comic book as an important art category and also of a need of its integration into and studying of in the framework of general historical and artistic tendencies.
ILLUSTRATIONS BY BOŽA VESELINOVIĆ IN THE “POLITIKIN ZABAVNIK”, FROM 1973 TO 1979
Illustrations are examples of prolific work of Boža Veselinović, the “Politikin Zabavnik” illustrator and one of the most outstanding comic-book illustrators of the second half of the th 20 century. On one hand, the following is expressed through morphological analysis: plastic and iconographic layer of illustrations/drawings; artistic interpretation of themes and motifs of the content of illustrations and drawing characteristics of artist's authentic signature style; problem treatment of newspapers illustration as a drawing in original form and a reproduction in printed medium, with a reference to the relation of basic illustration elements – text and picture. On the other hand, a definition of illustration as potentially distinct category of applied art, emphasising common characteristics and differences of comic-book and illustration, two related, mutually complementing, verbal and visual mediums of popular culture, is explored.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CONTEMPORARY ART IN PROCCESS OF THE INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OF THE PUBLIC URBAN SPACE OF BELGRADE