Zbornik 10 / 2014 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti. Online)

ISSN 2466-460X (Online)

ISSN 0522-8328 (Štampano izdanje)
PDF štampanog izdanja (5.0 MB)

Glavni i odgovorni urednik: mr LJiljana Miletić Abramović

Urednik broja: Draginja Maskareli

Uređivački odbor:
dr Sarita Vujković
dr Marta Vukotić Lazar
Draginja Maskareli
mr LJiljana Miletić Abramović
mr Jelena Perać
mr Maja Studen Petrović
dr Vladimir Simić

Sekretar redakcije broja: Jelena Popović

Svi tekstovi u rubrikama Prilozi, Polemike, Kritike i Prikazi se recenziraju.
Lista recenzenata:
Doc. dr Dragan Bulatović, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet – Odeljenje za istoriju umetnosti
Doc. dr Sarita Vujković, Univerzitet u Banja Luci, Akademija umjetnosti – Smer Grafički dizajn
Doc. dr Marta Vukotić Lazar, Univerzitet u Prištini, Filozofski fakultet – Odeljenje za istoriju umetnosti
Prof. dr Radivoje Dinulović, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Fakultet tehničkih nauka – Katedra za umetnost primenjenu u arhitekturi, tehnici i dizajnu
Prof. dr Jelena Erdeljan, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet – Odeljenje za istoriju umetnosti
Slobodan Jovanović, kustos, Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu
Mr Rifat Kulenović, muzejski savetnik, Muzej nauke i tehnike u Beogradu
Draginja Maskareli, viši kustos, Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu
Mr LJiljana Miletić Abramović, muzejski savetnik, Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu
Mr Jelena Perać, viši kustos, Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu
Doc. dr Vladimir Simić, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet – Odeljenje za istoriju umetnosti
Doc. mr Maja Studen Petrović, Univerzitet umetnosti u Beogradu, Fakultet primenjenih umetnosti – Odsek Kostim
Mr Milica Cukić, muzejski savetnik, Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu
Viktorija Šimon Vuletić, Art bioskop „Aleksandar Lifka“, Subotica

Časopis je indexiran:
Ebsco, KoBSON, ERIH PLUS

Sadržaj Zbornika 10 / 2014 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti. Online)

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Contents
BRANISLAV CVETKOVIĆ
O PROBLEMU NIMBOVA NA MINIJATURAMA U RUKOPISU PARISINUS GRAECUS 1242
ON THE PROBLEM OF HALOS IN THE MINIATURES OF CODEX PARISINUS GRAECUS 1242
Apstrakt:
Navodni nedostatak nimbova na portretima vizantijskog cara Jovana VI Kantakuzina – monaha Joasafa u rukopisu Parisinus graecus 1242, predstavljao je osnovu za stvaranje više teorija o razlozima izostanka tog simboličnog detalja. Imajući u vidu da su retki primeri vladarskih predstava bez nimba, autor članka je preduzeo posebno istraživanje rukopisa u pariskoj Nacionalnoj biblioteci. Pažljiva analiza pokazala je da su nimbovi ipak izvedeni na sva tri Kantakuzinova portreta, a da razlog njihove slabije vidljivosti treba tražiti u lošoj očuvanosti portreta i različitoj teh- nici izvođenja. Tokom ispitivanja rukopisa uočen je do sada previđen oblik složenog oreola oko Hristove glave u sceni Preobraženja, za koji su potražene odgovarajuće paralele u srednjovekovnoj građi i ponuđena tumačenja.
Ključne reči:
Византија, иконографија, илуминација, нимб, Јован Кантакузин
Summary:
In the scholarly literature, there is an assumption that Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos – monk Joasaph was not painted with a halo around his head in three portraits of his that appear in a manuscript of his theological writings (Par. gr. 1242). The assumed absence of the symbolic detail, which is omitted from representations of rulers very rarely, has led certain scholars to suggest a variety of theories about the reasons for such a practice. Bearing in mind the importance of presence or absence of halos in iconography, the author of this essay took on a special task to investigate the original manuscript Par. gr. 1242, preserved in the fundus of Bibliothèque nationale in Paris.
The close analysis of the miniatures showed that the halos were represented in all three portraits of Kantakouzenos, and the reason for the earlier arguments of the scholars that the halos do not exist is their partial damage, as well as their weak visibility that is the result of various techniques of execution of this particular detail in each of the portraits. In the Emperor's portrait on the f. 5v, the halo is painted brown, and the traces of the pigment can be discerned only when looked at through a converging lens. The same goes for the miniature on the f. 123v, where Kantakouzenos is represented as both ruler and monk, beneath the representation of The Holy Trinity, with halos whose circumferences are deeply engraved onto the golden foundation of the background of the representation.
During the process of analysis, the author noticed the so far overlooked form of the complex halo around Christ's head in the miniature with the representation of the Transfiguration of Christ. The author also points at two examples of iconographical parallels, the icon of Christ the Pantocrator from the National Museum in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the fresco with the torso of Christ the Ancient of Days from the tympanum above the entrance of the Church of Saint Apostles in the Patriarchate of Peć.
In the conclusion, the author stressed the importance of intitulation of the ruler in the Kantakouzenos' double portrait, which is inscribed only alongside his imperial aspect. Bearing in mind that even after his abdication and taking monastic vows his contemporaries continued to address him as Emperor, which he himself had done as well, Kantakouzenos' double portrait reflects the state of affairs, i.e., his deep influence on almost all church-political developments in Byzantium, so that the miniatures represent the direct visual reflection of the contents of the codex, the purpose of which was to celebrate, as a whole, the role of the former Emperor in Byzantine and European history of the fourteenth century.
BILJANA CRVENKOVIĆ
VREME PORCELANSKIH FIGURA: figurine XVIII i XIX veka iz zbirke Muzeja primenjene umetnosti
THE ERA OF PORCELAIN FIGURES: The 18th and 19th Century Figurines from the Collection of the Museum of Applied Art
Apstrakt:
Istorija proizvodnje evropskog porcelana, kao i njegova ključna uloga u okviru poimanja luksuza istraživala se u okviru dekorativnih umetnosti i istorije kulture. Mnogo manje pažnje posvećeno je jedinstvenim estetskim osobinama porcelana i značaju u okviru šireg kulturnog diskursa koji je imao u kontektu personalnog, a ponekad i nacionalnog identiteta, iz kojih proističu i različiti oblici njegove prezentacije. Pojava figurina, kao jednog segmenta proizvodnje porcelana i jednog oblika novovekovne „fascinacije porcelanom“, od samog početka imala je određeni značaj. Poput minijatura, porcelanske figure malih dimenzija, sa minuciozno obrađenim detaljima, bile su namenjene posmatranju iz blizine. Takvi porcelanski predmeti oslikavaju ne samo vreme u kojem nastaju i kulturnu sredinu, već i njihovu estetsku funkciju u okviru različitih segmenata kulture življenja. Upravo je cilj ovog rada da ukaže na istoriju pojave te vrste dekorativne umetnosti, njene estetske osobine i ulogu u okvirima kulture novog veka. U tom smislu, rad će obuhvatiti i analizu predmeta iz zbirke Muzeja primenjene umetnosti nastalih u novovekovnim manufakturama (Majsen, KPM).
Ključne reči:
Збирка, Мајсен, музеј, КПМ, порцелан, фигурине
Summary:
The appearance of figurines, as one segment of production of porcelain, represented an important element in Early Modern culture. Considered within the scope of decorative arts they offer us an image of the times and the culture of living from which they emerged.
The first part of this essay represents a kind of introduction into the history of emergence, shaping and development of this kind of porcelain in Europe. Special accent here is given to evolution of the porcelain figurines, to interpretation of their aesthetics and the roles they were assigned in various aspects of Early Modern culture, i.e. during the 18th and the 19th centuries. The second part of the essay deals with the analysis of the objects that are classified according to certain thematic wholes in the collection of the Museum of Applied Art. The objects presented in this essay form a segment of the Museum's collection of European porcelain figures, and were created in leading European manufactures at the end of the 18th and during the 19th century. We tried to establish clear concrete frames of production of the porcelain figures with introduction of certain thematic wholes, which actually follow general points of references of art of the period in question, and that immediately influenced shaping and development of this kind of porcelain objects. Inspired by the mythological fables from Ovid's Metamorphoses, by music, or everyday life, or by famous personages of the Early Modern culture, the figurines from the Museum's collection have certainly had strong influence to the presentation and building of identities of their owners and commissioners.
IVANA VASILIJEVIĆ
ZABORAVLJENI ČUVAR BENTA: crpna stanica „Plavna“ na Dunavu
A FORGOTTEN GUARDIAN OF THE BANK: Pumping Station “Plavna” on Danube
Apstrakt:
Krajem XIX i početkom XX veka industrijska arhitektura u Vojvodini doživljava brzi napredak, što je odraz regionalnog razvoja Austrougarske, u čijem se sastavu Vojvodina nalazila. Pored prehrambene proizvodnje i proizvodnje građevinskog materijala, poseban vid privrednog razvoja predstavljala je izgradnja infrastrukturnih sistema: mrežâ puteva i železnica, kanala i pratećih objekata za regulaciju vodotoka (crpne stanice, ustave, prevodnice, mostovi). Crpna stanica „Plavna“, građena u periodu 1909–1912. godine, svojevremeno je predstavljala značajan pomak i jedinstveni primer te vrste, u tehničko-tehnološkom smislu, na čitavom Balkanu. Iako je građena po tipskom projektu, pre svega kao utilitarna struktura, crpnu stanicu karakterišu značajni stilski elementi secesije, kao i tradicionalne ruralne arhitekture i zanatstva. Pred izazovima kakve u revitalizaciji predstavljaju veliki industrijski kompleksi, ovakve kuće-mašine često bivaju zanemarene. Opremljena originalnim pogonom i još uvek u funkciji, crpna stanica već čitav vek odoleva vremenu i dominira okolnim ruralnim pejzažem. Cilj rada je da prikaže arhitektonske, prostorno-funkcionalne i ambijentalne vrednosti Crpne stanice „Plavna“ kao specifičnog objekta industrijskog nasleđa. Istraživanje se zasniva na izučavanju originalne projektne i srodne dokumentacije, proučavanju dostupne literature i fotografija samog kompleksa i okoline.
Ključne reči:
индустријско наслеђе, црпна станица, сецесија, рурална архитектура
Summary:
With the first organized works on the regulation of watergangs in Vojvodina, came the construction and building of accompanying establishments such as bridges, sluices, locks, pumping stations. Although they were built as utilitarian structures, many of these objects are characterized by harmonious proportions, as well as by construction and decorative details crafted with great artifice.
The first buildings were of architecturally modest dimensions, following the shapes of standard family houses of the period. As typical industrial buildings, pumping stations included a number of other objects necessary for their successful functioning: beside machine house, there were also quarters for superintendent, machinists, guardian houses, workshops, and storehouses for wood and coal.
Pumping stations and plants represented, at the time, some of the most modern and the most specialized architectural problems and subjects for their builders, regardless of their sizes and locations, and auxiliary buildings were supposed to have architectural qualities, too. The architects were required to conceal the strictly utilitarian content, and to make an impact on existing surroundings with the aesthetic forms of their architectural projects. Their interiors were to be as functional and as practical as possible, accessible, clear and organized with utmost precision. Channels with locks, embankments, bridges and other objects, apart from draining and cultivating the once swampy ground, introduced new elements of beauty into village landscapes.
The pumping station in Plavna, as one of the most representative examples of hydrotechnic buildings from the beginning of the 20th century, is veritable rarity from the aspect of the protection of industrial heritage, owing to high level of preservation of its building complex and machines. With obvious elements of Secession combined with traditional building techniques, and with its original pumps, engines and reservoirs, this pumping station is true witnesses of the time in which it was created. Bearing in mind that the narrow definition of industrial heritage, with reference to machine systems and architectural structures, had been expanded, the future challenge will be to explore all the key elements that should be taken into account in the evaluation of industrial heritage.
SOFIJA KAJTEZ
BURMANSKA UMETNOST LAKA: tradicionalna tehnika graviranja i motivi na dve baganske kutije za betel
THE BURMESE ART OF LACQUER: The Traditional Technique of Engraving and Motifs on Two Bagan Betel Boxes
Apstrakt:
Kutije za betel (kun it) jedan su od najprepoznatljivijih izraza tradicionalne burmanske umetnosti laka. Na primeru dve kutije (privatno vlasništvo) od bambusa i burmanskog laka ticija (thit si), analiziraju se struktura, tehnika izrade i motivi dekoracije. Duboki cilindrični poklopac pokriva unutrašnjost: telo kutije istog oblika i dve tacne u kojima se čuvaju sastojci za betel. Običaj žvakanja betela bio je deo religijskih i dvorskih ceremonija, društvenog života i umetnosti. Osnova od pletenog bambusa prekrivena je slojevima crnog laka, a dekoracija je izvedena složenom jun (yun) tehnikom – graviranjem crteža i utrljavanjem boje u gravure. Crvena kutija (prva polovina XX veka, Bagan, Mjanmar) ukrašena je motivom „Junan polukruga“, znacima burmanskog Zodijaka i „osam planeta“ u crnoj boji i motivom „semenke paprike“ u žutoj. Kutija sa scenom „kralja na dvoru“ (1920–1950, Bagan, radionica sa zaštitnim znakom tigra) sa natpisima na burmanskom jeziku, izvedena je graviranjem crnog laka tradicionalnim redosledom u crvenoj, zelenoj, žutoj i narandžastoj boji.
Ključne reči:
кутије за бетел – kun it, лак – lacquer, тици – thit si, техника гравирања – yun
Summary:
The author analyzes the structure, the execution techniques and the decorative motifs of this extraordinary, with us still unknown art, in the effort to present it to the professional and general audience, taking as examples two Burmese Betel Boxes, kun it (private property), crafted from bamboo and lacquer, thit si. These boxes are cylindrical in shape, with deep lids that cover their interiors: the bodies of the boxes and two trays in which the ingredients for betel are to be kept. The custom of chewing betel belongs to religious and court ceremonies, to social life and art. The bases of the boxes are made of woven bamboo strips, covered with layers of black lacquer, and the decorative motifs are executed in yun technique – which understands engraving of decorative pattern and rubbing of paint into the engravings on the surface. Red Box (the first half of 20th century, Myanmar, Bagan) is decorated with motive of kunan kanbyat, i.e., the signs of Burmese Zodiac, yathi yok and „eight planets“, gyo shitlon, in black, and with the motive of “chilli seeds”, ngayoksi, in yellow. Box with a Scene of King at Court, nandwin (1920- 50, Bagan, workshop with tiger trademark), is executed in five colours: engraving in black lacquer with the traditional sequence of colours – red, green, yellow and orange. The box contains the inscriptions with names of patrons of the village pagoda and with their good wishes.
Typical of times and places of their production, the refinement of these boxes serves as an example of the quality of workshops from which they emerged. The motifs full of symbolic meanings, according to canon, although often accompanied by routinely executed drawings, are indisputably characterized by the refined sense of artistic qualities. Bearing in mind the quality of the boxes intended for everyday use, one could imagine the beauty of the best works of Burmese lacquerware with which it undoubtedly stands equal to other, more acknowledged and better-known countries that claim this art as their heritage.
DRAGANA MECANOV
PRILOG PROUČAVANJU ODNOSA SKULPTURE I SLIKARSTVA U MODERNOJ ARHITEKTURI BEOGRADA U DRUGOJ POLOVINI XX VEKA
CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH INTO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCULPTURE AND PAINTING IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE OF BELGRADE DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Apstrakt:
U tekstu se istražuju i nude različita tumačenja skulpture u modernoj stambenoj arhitekturi Beograda nastaloj u drugoj polovini XX veka. Osnovni cilj je istražiti i prikazati primere značajne za razumevanje odnosa skulpture, slikarstva i arhitekture. Arhitektura modernih pokreta, čiji prvi primeri nastaju u periodu između dva svetska rata, u drugoj polovini XX veka nastavlja intenzivno da se razvija bez elemenata dekoracije i skulptura. U stambenoj arhitekturi, dekorativni elementi slabo su bili zastupljeni. Istraživanje je primarno zasnovano na istoriografskom metodu. Zgrada u obliku meandra u jednom od značajnih novobeogradskih blokova povezuje se sa motivima umetnika Julija Knifera. Zahvaljujući arhitekti Mihajlu Mitroviću, pedesetih godina, skulpture Ane Bešlić i Ratka Stojadinovića, a kasnije i crteži Lazara Vujaklije, bivaju inkorporirani u arhitekturu stambenih zgrada. Kasnije će se koristiti kalupi za izradu betonskih odlivaka, a zgrade će kao celine sadržati elemente skulptoralnosti. U radu se definišu odnosi i sumiraju različita tumačenja brutalizma i „skulptoralne moderne“. Iako je stambena arhitektura odisala, pre svega, skromnom obradom fasada, izdvojeni su pojedini primeri iz Beograda, koji odstupaju od tog pristupa i uvode moderne skulpture. Ovakva analiza odnosa skulpture i arhitekture XX veka pomoći će u definisanju razvoja njihovog međusobnog odnosa i omogućiti periodizaciju ideja.
Ključne reči:
индустријска модерна, скулпторална модерна, стамбена архитектура, скулптура, синтеза уметности
Summary:
The time period between two world wars is characterized by modernist architecture, which developed under strong influence of European academic centres and growing absence of ornaments. The end of World War II brought new social and political contexts, and new economic circumstances. With the first five-year plan period (1947–1952) also came the architecture of modest materials and forms. In addition, the change in social and political contexts at the beginning of 1950s introduced activities, emergence and development of individual architectural studios. Some of them developed their own architectural expressions and revived relationship between architecture and sculpture in fresh, contemporary way, and created examples that represent the epoch. Here, one remembers the projects realized by studio established by architect Mihajlo Mitrović – apartment buildings in Zahumska Street No. 23 and Gospodar Jovanova Street No. 25. This architecture is inseparable from the sculptures created by Ana Bešlic and Ratko Stojadinović. A completely different approach can be found in examples appearing in Novi Beograd. Numerous requests for mass and quick apartment building added to intensive development of industrial, prefabricated, systems. One of the representative examples is the "meander" building in Block 21 in Novi Beograd. In this essay we analyze the motive of meander, and we relate it to the works done by artist Julije Knifer who favoured meander as the leitmotif of his creations. The sculptural elements of industrial modernism are: the emphasized horizontal lines, basic geometric forms, small number of floors architectural cubes. “Industrial modernism”, as it is referred to in the professional literature, became increasingly present with gradual development of the pre-fabricated systems, as well as with the growth of building industry. Only at the end of the 1960s, there emerged examples of architecture that featured different sensibility. In the sources, it was called “sculptural modernism” abundant with details – and it announced different approaches to forms opposed to the, until then dominant, "industrial modernism". The Genex building in Belgrade, has a larger number of elements as in brutalist architecture, as well as recognizable influences of important examples of international modern architecture. Parts of the Tower of Genex were painted by painter Lazar Vujaklija.
BILJANA VUKOTIĆ
RAZVOJ INDUSTRIJSKOG OBLIKOVANJA U FNR JUGOSLAVIJI NA PRIMERU IZLOŽBE UMETNOST U INDUSTRIJI, ODRŽANE U MUZEJU PRIMENJENE UMETNOSTI 1961. GODINE
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN IN THE FPR YUGOSLAVIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF EXHIBITION ART IN INDUSTRY HELD IN MUSEUM OF APPLIED ART IN 1961
Apstrakt:
Evidentne promene i novi tokovi u razvoju industrijske produkcije u cilju približavanja novim savremenim kreativnim praksama u našoj sredini zapažaju se posle Drugog svetskog rata. U novim uslovima ubrzanog razvoja i ekonomskog prosperiteta čitave zemlje javljaju se u početku brojni pojedinci, a zatim i proizvodna preduzeća koja postižu prve rezultate u oblasti industrijskog oblikovanja proizvoda. U početku su to bile usamljene i izolovane akcije, da bi one sredinom pedesetih godina XX veka prerasle u organizovane proizvodne celine. Za ovaj period karakterističan je spor i težak prodor industrijskog oblikovanja u industrijske pogone. U svesti neposrednih proizvođača postojao je jak otpor uvođenju industrijskih umetnika u proces proizvodnje, a o strukturalnim promenama i formiranju posebnih službi za dizajn gotovo da nije moglo da se govori.
Ključne reči:
индустријско обликовање, дизајн, индустријски уметник, примењена уметност, дидактичке изложбе уметничког обликовања, изложба Уметност у индустрији
Summary:
After the Second World War there appeared evident changes and new trends in the development of industrial production that aimed at bringing it closer to the contemporary creative practices in our country. Slow and hard introduction of industrial design into industrial facilities was characteristic of this period. Among the workers engaged in the factory production, there was a strong feeling of resistance to introduction of industrial artists in the very process of making of objects, and one almost could not talk about structural changes and establishing of special departments for design. Industrial design, as notion and practice in the newly established socialist Yugoslavia, was introduced immediately after the Second World War, although all the way to the middle of the 1960's there were misunderstandings and ignorance concerning the real function and importance of the concept of design and designers – industrial artists. During this period, industrial production of the, then, Socialist People's Republic of Yugoslavia was oriented more towards participation in industrial fairs and festivals that contributed in a specific way, after the Second World War, apart from their commercial character, to articulation of the propagandistic proclamation, by the State, of the social role of urbanism, architecture and design. This was all about ideological concept, rooted in discourses on the culture of living, art, architecture and industrial design. The primary problem of the Yugoslav to-date industrialization, modernization and, especially, urbanism was the problem of habitation, but also of the contemporary furnishings of interiors. This problem was tackled by the above-mentioned paradigmatic didactic exhibitions organized during the second half of the 1950's in Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana and Zrenjanin. According to museological typology, the exhibition Art in Industry, held in Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade in 1961, was the first exhibition of contemporary industrial design in Yugoslavia of that age. The guiding concept, which unfortunately was not realized in the whole, featured only those successfully designed serial products that were realized in the process of production. The Museum took the task of organization of the exhibition, taking into account the achievements of the contemporary industrial production, selecting the products that could withstand even more strict professional and museological criteria, in order to appear as exhibits at this exhibition.
MARIJA ZEČEVIĆ, OLIVERA STANKOVIĆ GRUJIČIĆ
ARHITEKTURA NAMEŠTAJA: upotrebni predmeti u stvaralaštvu Mustafe Musića
ARCHITECTURE OF FURNITURE: Utility Objects in the Opus of Mustafa Musić
Apstrakt:
Predmet ovog istraživanja je stvaralaštvo arhitekte Mustafe Musića izvan arhitektonskog projektovanja koje se odnosi na dizajniranje upotrebnih „art objekata“ i specifičnog komadnog nameštaja. U užem određenju predmet istraživanja su „art objekti“ Sto (Igrača, Strelca, Mislioca) iz 1982. godine, nameštaj dizajniran za beogradski noćni klub „XL“ iz 1995. godine i sto Ameba iz 2000. godine. Predmet se analizira i tumači uvidom u primarne izvore, naime projektnu, fotografsku dokumentaciju, skice i kataloge. Principi koncipiranja i realizacije komadnog nameštaja i „art objekata“ u ovom istraživanju tretirani su kao arhitektonska kategorija i vredan izvor za iščitavanje refleksija karakteristika arhitektonskog projektovanja na metodologiju dizajniranja nameštaja. Dokumentaciju za diskusiju upotpunjuju i zabeleženi razgovori sa arhitektom Musićem, te se u radu pored naučnog metoda analize građe, metodološkog postupka studije slučaja koristi i metod prikupljanja podataka – naučni intervju.
Cilj ovog istraživanja je da se kroz analizu i sistematizaciju odabranih primera predstavi osobenost stvaralačkog pristupa arhitekte Musića i mapira metodološko polazište autora u svim oblastima njegovog stvaralaštva.
Paralelno sa analizom stvaralaštva Mustafe Musića u oblasti primenjene umetnosti, istraživanje prati rad značajnih svetskih arhitekata na polju dizajniranja nameštaja i upotrebnih umetničkih predmeta. Sa posebnim akcentom na esej austrijskog arhitekte Hansa Holajna (Hans Hollein) Sve je arhitektura (Alles ist architectur) iz 1968. godine, istraživanje, pored prikazivanja i evaluacije rada jednog od značajnih arhitekata u Srbiji i regionu bivše Jugoslavije, otvara pitanje stvaralaštva izvan disciplinarnih granica.
Ključne reči:
архитектура, Мустафа Мусић, намештај, Сто (Играча, Стрелца, Мислиоца), ноћни клуб „XL“
Summary:
The object of the present research is the opus of architect Mustafa Musić which developed apart from his architectural designs, which comprises the design of „art objects“ and specific pieces of furniture. In the first part of the essay, titled “Architect as Designer of Furniture – from an Autonomous to the Socially Engaged Creator”, the authors explain the idea of design of utility objects through the concept of “Total Work of Art” and give a survey of the genesis of this idea since the Secession movement, at the beginning of the 20th century, until today. Ina review of radical architectural and design breaking forth, especially characteristic for the Italian art scene during the 1960s and the1970s, and in a review of Hans Hollein “Alles ist architectur”, from 1968, the authors introduced into this essay an aspect of criticism from which they proceeded to the analysis of the opus of this architect. In the second part of the essay, titled “The Opus of Architect Mustafa Musić in the Realm of Design of Art Objects and Specific Pieces of Furniture”, the authors follow the course of maturation of postmodernist thought in the works of the architect, based on the analysis of installation “Table (of Player, Archer, Thinker)” from 1982. In this research, the authors singled out the analogous positions in international, radical, practice in furniture design, that are presumed to be critical and professional models for Musić, the architect. In addition, in this part of the essay, the authors analyzed also the period of cultural isolation from 1990 to 2000 and Musić's creations from this period. Researched are the models and the concepts of utility objects designed for nightclub “XL” 1995/97, and table “Amoeba” from 2000.
ALEKSANDAR ČUČKOVIĆ
ZANATSTVO I DIZAJN: od alternative do novih vidova stvaralaštva
CRAFTS AND DESIGN: From an Alternative to the New Forms of Creativity
Apstrakt:
Sa pojavom industrije zanatstvo je počelo da se smatra prevaziđenim vidom proizvodnje, izuzev povremenih pojava nostalgije za njegovim iščezlim vrednostima. Odnedavno je, međutim, oživelo interesovanje za zanatsku praksu, naročito s obzirom na mogućnost njenog povezivanja sa umetnošću i dizajnom, što je propraćeno umnožavanjem praktičnih i teorijskih interpretacija ovog fenomena. Oslobođen od zahteva naručilaca i od obaveze da njegovi proizvodi budu neposredno upotrebljivi, savremeni zanatlija se po svom statusu približio umetniku, a s obzirom na priliku da posegne za sredstvima najsavremenije tehnologije – dizajneru. Novi „ideal zanatstva“ pruža pribežište stvaralaštvu od uniformizacije naučno- tehničkog sistema i doprinosi društvenoj koheziji putem drugačije organizacije procesa rada.
Ključne reči:
занатство, дизајн, уметност, технологија, култура, стваралаштво
Summary:
With the advent of industry, crafts began to be regarded as outdated form of production, although the nostalgia for their vanished values emerged occasionally. However, recently the interest in craft practice has been reviving, particularly with regard to possible links with art and design, and it is followed by the multiplication of its practical and theoretical interpretation. Liberated from the clients’ demands and from the commitment that products should be immediately usable, modern craftsman is, by his status, closer to the artist, and by the opportunity to reach for the cutting-edge technology – to the designer. The new “craft ideal” provides a shelter to the creativity from the standardization of scientific and technical system and it contributes o the social cohesion through a different organization of the work process.
JELENA NIKOLIĆ VANOVIĆ
GLAMUR: stilski eksces koji prikriva bolno mesto
GLAMOUR: The Stylish Excess that Conceals a Painful Spot
Apstrakt:
Smatrajući da odevanje predstavlja jedan od najeksplicitnijih vidova spektakularizacije identiteta, u ovoj analizi glamura pokušaćemo da utvrdimo koje sadržaje ovaj stilski jezik obrađuje i saopštava. U samom središtu ove estetske koncepcije otkrićemo Batajev pojam erotizma. Budući da nastaje kao posledica rascepa između sveta racionalnog i iracionalnog, odnosno sveta rada, sa jedne strane, i slepe sile (seksualnosti i smrti), sa druge, erotizam se, među njima, ukazuje kao večita čežnja za uspostavljanjem celine. Uskoro ćemo uvideti da upravo problemi seksualnosti i smrti čine osnovnu značenjsku okosnicu glamura. Kanališući društvenu histeriju u stilski eksces, glamur se javlja u formi estetskog i moralnog prestupa, nudeći mogućnost običnom čoveku da kroz transponovanje zabranjenih sadržaja na vizuelni, odevni jezik, iskorači iz prosečnog, umerenog, pristojnog ili funkcionalnog i kroči u nedostižno. Kroz interdisciplinarni pristup analizi glamura, kako u smislu filmskog kostima, tako i u smislu modnog odevanja, otkrićemo da je društvena kriza izazvana industrijskom revolucijom i promenama u obimu i organizaciji rada, kanalisana u stilski eksces, koji je, zatim, iako bogat subverzivnim potencijalom, lako skliznuo u potrošnju. Videćemo da glamur predstavlja odgovor na pojavu modernizma i industrijske proizvodnje, pokušaj da se integracijom u spektakl oslobodimo patnje, samoće i smrti.
Ključne reči:
гламур, мелодрама, преступ, рад, спектакл
Summary:
Emerging as a consequence of industrial production organized on the largest scale, and thus in the age of effective prohibitions, glamour appears as an offence, that is through spending, as well as through mass consumption, which is characteristic of industrial societies. The proportions of production and consumption, introduced by industrial revolution, and the consequent changes in social conditions, turned glamour into the largest spectacle ever accessible to human societies. That is the spectacle of the consumer culture, the saint of the modern age. Icons of glamour represent the gods revered by the modern man.
Glamour has quickly and easily moved from cinema to various lines of industry of life styles, and crucial for its mass popularization was the importance of costume designed for the Hollywood melodramas. Costume has become one of the basic features of both aesthetics and semantics. When we take into consideration that the purpose of clothing is, in the first place, the spectacularization of identities, a question arises: what is the content which this stylistic language treats and communicates? We discover that in the very heart of this aesthetic concept rests Georges Bataille's notion of eroticism as eternal longing to establish the lost totality or continuity, an attempt to overcome the gap between the rational and the irrational in man. This is why the fundamental signifying focus of glamour is composed of problems of sexuality and death. With channelling social hysteria into a stylistic excess, glamour appears in the form of aesthetic and moral misdemeanour. Glamour allows one to, in transposing the forbidden contents into the visual, into the language of clothing, step out from mediocre, moderate, appropriate or functional, and into the unattainable, into the everlasting...
In the process of spectacularization, the biological sexuality and mortality become entirely neutralized. Glamour managed to overcome the eternal problems of man by completely divorcing beauty and appeal, but also death, from the corporeal and the social givens. One has, through integrating oneself into the spectacle, at last realized the unity with the world, but the price of this success is exorbitant. One can free oneself from the loneliness and death only when turned into an image.
DRAGINJA MASKARELI, JELENA PERAĆ, BILJANA VUKOTIĆ
AKVIZICIJE MPU
ACQUISITIONS MAA