ZLATA VUKSANOVIĆ MACURA
samostalni istraživač, Beograd
RENTIJERSKI STANOVI ZA SIROMAŠNE BEOGRAĐANE, 1919-1941
RENTAL APARTMENTS FOR THE POOR CITIZENS OF BELGRADE, 1919 – 1941
Zbornik 8/2012 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 77-86
Uprkos činjenici da je veliki broj stanovnika Beograda u periodu između dva svetska rata živeo u rentijerskim stanovima, retki su tekstovi koji obrađuju ovu temu. Stambena arhitektura Beograda tog perioda uglavnom je prikazivana kroz arhitektonske i stilske karakteristike zgrada, vila i stanova dok su uslovi stanovanja, pitanje vlasništva i odnos zakupaca i rentijera mahom bili izvan istraživačkog fokusa. Cilj ovog rada je da prikaže stanove koje su iznajmljivali siromašni Beograđani u međuratnom periodu. Analizirani su karakteristični primeri i rezimirane zajedničke odlike rentijerskih stanova i zgrada, te su prikazani uslovi stanovanja siromašnih zakupaca u kontekstu urbanog razvoja grada i društvenih odnosa. Glavni metodi kojima je obezbeđena građa za analizu bili su izučavanje arhivske građe, originalne projektne i srodne dokumentacije, proučavanje tekstova i članaka iz periodike i oglasa o izdavanju stanova, koji su objavljivani u dnevnim listovima, zatim analiza fotografija, geodetskih planova grada iz 1921. i 1932. godine, kao i terenski rad i razgovori sa današnjim stanarima.
rentijeri, rentijerski stanovi, siromašni zakupci, stanovanje siromašnih
In the period between the two world wars, a large number of the citizens of Belgrade lived in rented apartments. Rental apartments for the poor tenants were built and leased in all parts of the town. In the central parts of town, the poor rented apartments in unhygienic and dilapidated apartment buildings remaining from the 19th century and units located in courtyards of detached houses or in smaller enclaves. In the suburbs and near – suburbs, they rented substandard apartments in single story dwellings in deep and narrow courtyards that housed several kitchen-room type units.
Being a rentier was an occupation that was profitable and provided social status and power. Big rentiers were the owners of luxurious apartments available to a small circle of better off citizens, but they also owned dilapidated buildings and apartments that they leased to the poor citizens of Belgrade. Not so rich rentiers mostly had the latter tenants. There was also a number of “landladies” and “landlords” who were not rentiers by occupation, but who increased their modest profits by leasing a small apartment in the courtyard, basement or shed. One form of poor people's “rentier business” was subleasing a part of the apartment, most often a room.
The tenants of small and substandard, but expensive apartments and rooms, were poor families and singles, junior civil servants, pensioners, craftsmen, workers and many others. There were also pre-war citizens of Belgrade, those who were looking for employment in the capital city of the newly formed Kingdom, migrant workers, Russian refugees and foreigners, together with a large number of half - literate, unqualified and poor village population newly arrived to Belgrade.
The apartments were small in size and had insufficient cubic capacity of air per room. They were overcrowded, often consisting of a kitchen and a room, or one room. They were damp, badly lit and without sunlight, cold and with no fresh air, negatively affecting the tenants health. Even today, these courtyard buildings that housed the poorbetween the two world wars can be found in the streets of Dorćol, Savamala, Čubura, Voždovac, Zvezdara, Lekino Brdo or Bulbulder.
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