DRAGANA VASILJEVIĆ TOMIĆ
arhitekta, Arhitektonski fakultet, Beograd

BOJA U PROSTORU : KOLORISTIČKA KULTURA
COLOUR IN SPACE : COLOURISTIC CULTURE

Zbornik 7/2011 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 95-103

UDK:
72.017.4 ; 711.4.01
ID 188183564

Apstrakt:
Istorijska arhitektonska polihro- mija predstavlja osnovu za pojavu boje u javnom prostoru. Kompleksnost kolorističkih odlika javnog gradskog prostora uslovljena je osnovnim karakteristikama: kolorističkim prioritetima, harmonijom bojenih prostornih struktura i materijala u projektovanju polihromnih ambijenata u gradu. Faktori koji oblikuju koloristički ambijent grada jesu: prirodne i klimatske karakteristike, međuodnosi boje i oblika, kao i doživ- ljaj forme javnog gradskog prostora uz očuvanje njegovog identiteta. Fenomen boje ispitan je kroz evoluciju boje i razvoj kolorističke kulture, koja značajno utiče na kolorističke prioritete ljudi i samu koloristiku grada. Termini funkcionalna boja i klima boje takođe su razmatrani kao neke od najbitnijih odlika arhitektonske i urbanističke prakse. Kvalitet javnog gradskog prostora direktno je uslovljen kulturnim identitetom, a posredno pojavom polihromije u javnom gradskom prostoru. Potreba za unapređenjem kvaliteta života u gradu predstavlja jedan od ključnih motiva za bavljenje urbanim prostorom, odnosno započinjanje procesa arhitektonsko urbanističkog projektovanja. Prikupljena iskustva ukazuju na mogućnost redefinisanja koncepta javnog gradskog prostora u planersko-projektantskoj praksi. Sintetisano znanje profinjeno je ispitivanjem elastičnosti njegovih granica u skladu sa očuvanjem identiteta mesta i budućim transformacijama grada i njegovih korisnika. Formirani su novi principi na kojima je izgrađen transformisani model javnog gradskog prostora kao polihromnog ambijenta.

Ključne reči:
boja, koloristička kultura, koloristička harmonizacija, koloristički ambijent grada, koloristički prioriteti, komponovanje arhitektonske forme

Summary:
The complexity of colouristic space is conditioned by its basic characteristics: colouristic priorities, harmony of painted space structures and material used in design of polychrome ambiences of a town.
The limits of colouristic culture define the epoch and the geographical frame it exists in. The impact of regional centres can be singled out, where the colouristic canons develop and disappear, and the colouristic traditions mature tending to expand beyond geographical boundaries. Agents, having impact on formation and expansion of colouristic culture belong to the realm of natural-climatic, psychological and historical-cultural features. Elements of colouristic culture include colour manifestations on the material world objects, which reflect colouristic symbolism and philosophical understanding of the colour.
Modern man's vision has changed. Our time and its tempo of life, speed of perception, technical innovations, film, most often require a synthetic vision of things and colours. Achievements of the colouristic culture – creative experience and results of scientific research – are used in various countries in order to create in a colouristic manner the surrounding object-space environment. Professional tasks within the frame of this approach often neglect the psychological and cultural aspects of architecture. It is obvious that when colour is used in an architectural space the need for improvement of architectural qualities of the space, its esthetic expression and creation of a pleasing psychological environment should be taken into consideration in relation to the kind of activities likely to take place. This justifies the ambience approach in projecting the colouristic features of a town, which is a combination of space and social requirements.
The basic issue of colouristic harmonization of town ambience is to connect colouristic harmonization of architectural spatial structure with perceptions in move which actually prevents the functioning of harmonization methods of colouristic surface compositions. The colouristic harmonization of town ambience is a task requiring far more complex level in relation to harmonization of colours on a surface and necessity to experience colours in space. It is determined by the level of development of colouristic culture, social status and can be successfully solved in the process of architectural urban design through the use of new generation colouristic systems as instruments of harmonization.
Composition of colours in an architectural setting requires the attention to be focused on conditions defined by actual spatial-plan situation. That is, changes of colours should emphasize the compositional implications of spatial framework in objects, rhythmical patterns of their mutual relation in space and comparison of dimensions. The colour is experienced as a secondary architectural means emphasizing the compositional concept which developed without colours.
The significance of architectural polychrome is sublimated in the information contained in the architectural form, nature, society, ways of the social life and culture. Knowledge of the architectural polychrome language is an indispensable element of colouristic compositional skills enabling the polychrome to be used in providing meaningful, emotional, and ideological sense of architecture. Relation to colour has a solid, cultural-historical base encompassing the symbolism of colours and reliable correlation between people when colour semantics is concerned. Expressiveness of the polychrome, its ability to pass information on the importance of architecture and to provoke emotional reactions and esthetic experience, offer possibility for discussion on colours within the frame of a given historical-cultural human community.
The language of colours expands the artisticmeaningful potential of architecture. The language of colours actively influences thoughts and feelings of people by provoking emotional reactions and experiences.

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