istoričar umetnosti, Zavičajni muzej, Jagodina
FEROTIPIJA IZ ZAVIČAJNOG MUZEJA U JAGODINI
FERROTYPES FROM THE REGIONAL MUSEUM IN JAGODINA
Zbornik 4/5/2008/2009 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 51-57
772.2.151 ; 77:069.51(497.11)
U članku je predstavljena ferotipija iz zbirke Zavičajnog muzeja u Jagodini. Posebna pažnja je posvećena tehnologiji izrade, osobenostima i istorijskom razvoju ferotipije s obzirom na to da u literaturi na srpskom jeziku ova tema nije naročito zastupljena. Istaknute su razlike u odnosu na druge rane fotografske tehnike i ukazano je na značaj daljeg istraživanja kako bi se dobila preciznija slika o rasprostranjenosti ferotipije na tlu Srbije.
fotografija, dagerotipija, kolodijum, ferotipija (melanotipija, tintipija), portret
The Collection of Photographs at the Museum in Jagodina houses one well-preserved ferrotype picturing two unidentified persons. The process used was that of wet collodion coated on iron sheets. Ferrotype was an early photographing technique devised as result of the attempt to create a simpler and cheaper replacement of the daguerreotype. It was introduced by Adolph Martin and patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith, an American scientist, photographer and astronomer who taught chemistry and physics in Ohio. Two American companies rivaled in the production and the company run by Peter Neff called them melainotypes while that of Victor Moreau Griswold named them ferrotypes. Tintype was the third term, which though of later date, was in use in literature. The entire process was relatively simple and would take only few minutes to accomplish. The collodion emulsion mixed with potassium iodide would be coated on thin iron sheets varnished black. The treated plate was then sensitized by soaking it in solution of silver nitrate. While the collodion was still moist, the plate was exposed. The exposition lasted for short time only. After that the photograph was developed, fixed, rinsed and coated by transparent protective varnish. First ferrotypes used to be inserted in decorative boxes while later various types of frames were made and finally paper and cardboard envelopes usually in cartes-de-visite format prevailed. Occasionally, no encasement was used. From the United States they expanded to England, Australia and New Zealand. They used to be made by traveling photographers who worked at fairs, bazaars, in tourist resorts or simply in the streets. This was the reason for the quality of photograph to entirely rely upon the photographer's skills who often were craftsmen in pursuit of fast and easy earning. The only object of photography was portraiture, and the invention of camera with several lenses allowed for small dimensions ferrotypes to be made (as small as post stamps) or even smaller which would then be inserted into brooches, tie-pins, cuffs and other jewellers. In comparison to other early photographing techniques, ferrotypes had much longer life extending even to the World War II. The importance of ferrotype lies in the fact that it made photographs available to broadest social layers. They are rarely found in museums in Serbia; however, they are more often kept in private collections.
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