БРАНИСЛАВ ЦВЕТКОВИЋ
Завичајни музеј Јагодина

О ПРОБЛЕМУ НИМБОВА НА МИНИЈАТУРАМА У РУКОПИСУ PARISINUS GRAECUS 1242
ON THE PROBLEM OF HALOS IN THE MINIATURES OF CODEX PARISINUS GRAECUS 1242

Зборник 10/2014 (Музеј примењене уметности), страна 7-17

УДК:
091=14'04"1242"
75.057"1242"

Апстракт:
Наводни недостатак нимбова на портретима византијског цара Јована VI Кантакузина – монаха Јоасафа у рукопису Parisinus graecus 1242, представљао је основу за стварање више теорија о разлозима изостанка тог симболичног детаља. Имајући у виду да су ретки примери владарских представа без нимба, аутор чланка је предузео посебно истраживање рукописа у париској Националној библиотеци. Пажљива анализа показала је да су нимбови ипак изведени на сва три Кантакузинова портрета, а да разлог њихове слабије видљивости треба тражити у лошој очуваности портрета и различитој тех- ници извођења. Током испитивања рукописа уочен је до сада превиђен облик сложеног ореола око Христове главе у сцени Преображења, за који су потражене одговарајуће паралеле у средњовековној грађи и понуђена тумачења.

Кључне речи:
Византија, иконографија, илуминација, нимб, Јован Кантакузин

Summary:
In the scholarly literature, there is an assumption that Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos – monk Joasaph was not painted with a halo around his head in three portraits of his that appear in a manuscript of his theological writings (Par. gr. 1242). The assumed absence of the symbolic detail, which is omitted from representations of rulers very rarely, has led certain scholars to suggest a variety of theories about the reasons for such a practice. Bearing in mind the importance of presence or absence of halos in iconography, the author of this essay took on a special task to investigate the original manuscript Par. gr. 1242, preserved in the fundus of Bibliothèque nationale in Paris.
The close analysis of the miniatures showed that the halos were represented in all three portraits of Kantakouzenos, and the reason for the earlier arguments of the scholars that the halos do not exist is their partial damage, as well as their weak visibility that is the result of various techniques of execution of this particular detail in each of the portraits. In the Emperor's portrait on the f. 5v, the halo is painted brown, and the traces of the pigment can be discerned only when looked at through a converging lens. The same goes for the miniature on the f. 123v, where Kantakouzenos is represented as both ruler and monk, beneath the representation of The Holy Trinity, with halos whose circumferences are deeply engraved onto the golden foundation of the background of the representation.
During the process of analysis, the author noticed the so far overlooked form of the complex halo around Christ's head in the miniature with the representation of the Transfiguration of Christ. The author also points at two examples of iconographical parallels, the icon of Christ the Pantocrator from the National Museum in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the fresco with the torso of Christ the Ancient of Days from the tympanum above the entrance of the Church of Saint Apostles in the Patriarchate of Peć.
In the conclusion, the author stressed the importance of intitulation of the ruler in the Kantakouzenos' double portrait, which is inscribed only alongside his imperial aspect. Bearing in mind that even after his abdication and taking monastic vows his contemporaries continued to address him as Emperor, which he himself had done as well, Kantakouzenos' double portrait reflects the state of affairs, i.e., his deep influence on almost all church-political developments in Byzantium, so that the miniatures represent the direct visual reflection of the contents of the codex, the purpose of which was to celebrate, as a whole, the role of the former Emperor in Byzantine and European history of the fourteenth century.

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