MIRJANA PROŠIĆ DVORNIĆ
Cultural Anthropologist, Northwood University, Midland, Michigan, USA
ODNOS PRIRODE I KULTURE U ARHITEKTURI OLDENA B. DAUA
THE RELATIONSHIP OF NATURE AND CULTURE IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF ALDEN B. DOW
Journal 8/2012 (Museum of Applied Art), pages 87-98
72.071.1 Dau O.
Abstract (original language):
Olden B. Dau (Alden B. Dow, 1904- 1983) je bio američki arhitekta koji je stvorio sopstvenu sintezu vizuelnog izražaja moderne arhitekture američkog Srednjeg Zapada. U okviru tog eklektičnog pravca, nastalog svuda kao kritika tradicionalnih viktorijanskih stilova, neprimerenih novom dobu, Dau je pratio uzore kristalisane u pokretu umetnost i zanati (Arts and Crafts s korenima u engleskom pokretu estetičara), posebno varijantu koju je razvio Frenk Lojd Rajt (Frank Lloyd Wright) i stil moderne nastale između 1920. i 1960. godine. U duhu svog vremena takođe je veoma uspešno kombinovao estetiku sa filozofskim i socijalno-reformatorskim aspektima arhitekture. Dau, koji je do kraja života boravio u rodnom Midlandu, u centralnom Mičigenu, ostavio je bogati opus dela u stambenoj, javnoj, obrazovnoj, komercijalnoj, industrijskoj i religijskoj arhitekturi. Od ukupno 600 idejnih projekata realizovano je preko 350. Ovo istraživanje zasniva se na dokumentaciji arhiva „O.B. Dau“ koji se nalazi u sklopu njegove rezidencije i studija u Midlandu, kao i na analizi većeg broja postojećih arhitektonskih objekata i literature.
Key words: (original language)
moderna, odnos prirode i kuture, Olden B. Dau (Alden B. Dow), protočna arhitektura, forma kao izraz funkcije
Alden B. Dow (1904-1983) was born in Midland, a small town in mid-Michigan, as the fifth of Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow's seven children. H.H. Dow founded the Dow Chemical Company in 1891, thus not only contributing to the industrial upsurge which advanced the US from a semi-peripheral to a core nation, but also saving Midland from its near ruin. Instead, the town became a destination for many professionals looking for rewarding employment and pleasant living conditions. The fact that H.H. Dow and his affluent coworkers constantly strived to develop a self-sufficient settlement with amenities that surpass the usual contents of a small town, worked to A. Dow's advantage. Midland, like very few other American towns, such as F. L. Wright's Oak Park, Illinois, or Brother Greene's Pasadena, California, can boast of being shaped by its own architect and city planner.
A. Dow studied architecture at Columbia University (1927- 1931), where the academic approach still dominated. He was, on the other hand, drawn towards styles that preferred placing function over form, such as the Arts and Crafts Movement (F. L. Wright in particular), Japanese and modern architecture. During his rich career, starting in late 1920s, Dow, as a part of Midwestern Modern, developed his own distinctive synthesis of styles believing that architecture had to be one with nature and a created environment that stimulated the advancement and the individuality of people who used it. He has designed hundreds of buildings ranging from residential to commercial, educational, religious and civic structures. Although most of them are located in Midland and in Michigan, his buildings are also found in many other parts of the US.
This article focuses on his residential buildings and is based on the research in the Alden B. Dow Archives, housed in A. B. Dow Home and Studio, a National Historic Landmark, and on the analyses of 16 Midland homes.
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