archeologist, City Museum of Novi Sad, Novi Sad
GLINENE LULE SA PETROVARADINSKE TVRĐAVE
CLAY PIPES FROM THE PETROVARADIN FORTRESS
Journal 4/5/2008/2009 (Museum of Applied Art), pages 7-18
Abstract (original language):
Rad obuhvata sistematizaciju glinenih lula, otkrivenih prilikom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja na Petrovaradinskoj tvrđavi, višeslojnom lokalitetu sa moćnim stratumom iz osmanskog i austrougarskog razdoblja. Lule su razvrstane u tri osnovne grupe: turske lule, podeljene na ukrašene, neukrašene
Key words: (original language)
Petrovaradinska tvrđava, glinene lule, recipijent, čibuk, kamiš, kalup, pečat
Protective excavations at Petrovaradin Fortress in the period 2002 - 2004 had unearthed 369 mainly fragmented clay pipes. They were systematized on the basis of typology established by Béla Kovács and Gábor Tomka, Hungarian archaeologists who had interpreted material from different fortresses in the Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy which once encompassed the Petrovaradin Fortress as well. Pipes are classified into three groups: Turkish, mixed Turkish- Hungarian and pipes bearing stamps of Central Europe workshops. The oldest is the group of Turkish pipes and it corresponds with the long Turkish rule over Petrovaradin Fortress (1526-1691). Turkish pipes are divided into three groups: decorated, made in fine clay moulds, well fired with plenty of forms and richly decorated (relief and impressing by stamps, tubes and rollers); undecorated, of lower quality and due to cheap production costs massively produced, they were used by poorer social layers; pipes with rosettes, moulded, most often white glazed, with rosette decoration on both sides of the receptacle. Turkish pipes which stayed in use at Petrovaradin Fortress even after the departure of the Turkish troops (based on analogies they are dated within a longer period between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries) testify to their popularity among soldiers serving in the Austro-Hungarian army.
Mixed group of Turkish-Hungarian pipe forms developed by the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth centuries in the bordering zones of Hungary, where their production started emulating Western, “Dutch” and Eastern “Turkish” (less refined shapes and coarse manufacturing) forms in which process the Eastern influence was stronger.
The youngest group of pipes with stamps of the Central European workshops was manufactured by the end of the eighteenth and in the nineteenth centuries. The best known workshops come from Debrecen and Banská Štiavnica and from the workshops from this circle (Körmend, Vasvár and Pápa). Most frequent finds of pipes at Petrovaradin Fortress are those with KŐNIG workshop stamps. They are of high quality, having a characteristic form with high receptacle, shell-like or semi-circular lower part and short stem taking acute angle to the bowl. Most frequent inscriptions are M.HŐNIG. WW./SCHMNITZ,.M.HŐNIGSOHN/ SCHEMNITZ, M. HŐNIG/SCHEMNITZ. Many of the pipes bear stamps of FRANZ/BRUNNER and A. RESS workshops.
Most of the pipes found at the Petrovaradin Fortress are imports brought in by soldiers since they were those who first introduced pipe smoking habits into these parts but also workers and craftsmen from other parts of the region who were hired to build this monumental fortress. Pipes were also imported through trading using the Danube routes mostly.
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