Journal 6 / 2010 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)

ISSN 2466-460X (Online)

ISSN 0522-8328 (Printed edition)
PDF of the printed edition (22.6 MB)

Editor in Chief: Ivanka Zorić

Issue Editor: Ljiljana Miletić-Аbramović, M.A.

Editorial Board:
Predrag Dragojević, Рh. D. Ivaпka Zorić Milica Janković, М.А. Ljiljana Мiletić-Abramović, М.А. Jelena Perać, М.А. Jadranka Prolović, Рh. D. Mirjana Roter-Blagojević, Рh. D.

Issue Editorial Assistant: Andrijana Ristić, М.А.

All the papers in the sections Contributions, Polemics, Critic Reviews and Reviews are peer reviewed.

The Journal is indexed:

Contents of the Jouurnal 6 / 2010 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)

Abstract (original language):
U Bavarskoj biblioteci u Minhenu čuva se najobimniji rukopis srpskor minijaturnor slikarstva, nastao krajem XIV veka, u nauci poznat kao Srpski psaltir iz Minhena ili Minhenski psaltir. Povez Minhenskor psaltira uradio je patrijarh Pajsije 1630. rodine. U ovom radu analiziraju se način i tehnik
Key words (original language):
Povez, Minhenski psaltir, patrijarh Pajsije, strukturalni elementi poveza, vizantijski povez, srpski srednjovekovni povez
The analysis of the Ьinding of Munich Psalter included its bookblnding structure, techniques and decoration on the binding. It was based on the photos of the bindings that were obtained from the Bavarian State LiЬrary in Munich and on the research results of other bindings with the same bookbinding structure. The method, techniques, and bookЬinding structure of the Munich Psalter were reconstructed Ьу the above mentioned methodology.
The Ъооk Ыосk of the Psalter is sewn with Ьiaxial arrangement of stitch, more precisely, the two halves are attached to the wooden boards in "V" configuration of groove and holes. Enbands has а cross-stitched pattem in four colors: red, green, Ыuе and yellow around three cords. The cord support of the endbands, in the previoш phase was wrapped with natural thread and anchornig to the book Ыосk and wooden board, with oblique holes from the edge to the outside of the board. The whole Psalter is covered in dark brown leather and fastened with two brass rings and pegs and with three entwined leather belts. The front and back cover are decorated with Ьlind tooling of an individual impression. Both covers have similar composition. Тhе composition on both front and back cover is made of two concentric frames and of two friezes on the upper and bottom side of the middle rectangle. The central section is crossed with slanted and horizontal lines. The space between the lines is filled with ornaments of stylized plants and with vignettes.
The cover of Munich Psalter testifies about patriarch Pajsije great skill and about his gift for composing the omaments. With his literary work, patriarch Pajsije was the last author of medieval Serblan literature. The same could Ье said about his Ъinding - the one of the Munich Psalter: Ьу its technique, bookЬinding structure and ornamentations on the leather, it is an example of SerЬian medieval Ьinding.
Abstract (original language):
Rad se bavi pojmom "Kraljevina Srbija", vremenom i kontekstom u kojima se termin javlja. Političke i dinastičke aspiracije vladarske kuće Habzburga na teritoriji srpske srednjevekovne države i pravoslavno stanovništvo sagledane su u svetlu austrijsko- turskih ratova sa kraja HVII i početka XVIII v
Key words (original language):
"Kraljevina Srbija", Habzburzi, austrijsko-turski ratovi, barokna istoriografija, kartografija, heraldika, Požarevački mir
Тhе term "Кingdom of Serbla" appeared for the first time after the unsuccessful siege of Vienna in 1683. It was during the campaign against Turkey, when territories of South-Eastern Europe and the Balkans were seized bу Austria-Hungary. In the new political context at the end of the 17th century, the term overgrows dynastic propaganda fiction, and refers to real geographical territory (understood in very broad terms). Тhе name "The Кingdom of Serbla" appears regularly in chronicles and court histories, on maps and engravings as Austria-Hungarian ambltions for expansion to south-east and for war with Тurkey were developed. After signing the treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, the name appeared in the official documents that were related to Serbla of that time. "The Кingdom of Serbia" represents ideological creation that evolved from baroque historiography into its connection with specific territorial reality. It was invented and conducted bу Viennese court according to its political and dynastic interests. Their claims on the West Balkan lands, the Нabsburgs based on war successes and supported them bу complex historical and juridical arguments.
Abstract (original language):
U tekstu je dat opšti uvid u istoriju primenjene umetnosti u Novom Sadu krajem 19. i početkom 20. veka, sagledan kroz prizmu kulture stanovanja građanske populacije. Navedeni period može da se podeli u dve epohe koje su vidljive u uređelju enterijera, ali koje se i međusobno prepliću. Mešavine stil
Key words (original language):
Novi Sad, primenjena umetnost, enterijeri, 19-20. vek, istoricizam, secesija
Situated at the crossroads, 19th. century Novi Sad went through urban and architectural developments which were dominated by late baroque, neo-classicism, and subsequently all historical forms characteristic for other towns in the Pannonia plain. 19th century architecture, fine arts and applied arts studies need to be divided into two periods: period up to 1849 when the mixture of oriental and medieval culture dominated the city and period after the bombardment when the oldest remaining architectural corpus in the city; built in the fashion of contemporary European styles, was formed.
Intensive urban growth, city regulation, population growth and increase in prosperity introduced standards for comfortable and settled city life, so that families of craftsmen, tradesmen, clerks and of the intellectuals aspired to live in keeping with their social status, income and upbringing. At the end of the 19tЬ century, mainly one-floor-family houses were built in the centre of Novi Sad. On the ground floor there were usually premises for family business, and the household units were on the first floor. Drawing room, living room and master bedroom were the most presentable parts of the house and they were furnished in the fashion of that time. А11 significant inventory, invaluable for studying the development of applied arts, was located in these three rooms. Collecting, storing and exhibiting different objects became а social responsibility of every city family; and the lady of the house would make an effort to acquire good quality furniture, carpets, curtains, porcelain and silverware, books, paintings, musical instruments, family albums and souvenirs. А had an important role in arranging and keeping а household. With her taste, skills and neatness she tried to create ambience that would correspond to the family needs and aspirations of bourgeois society.
Contrary to simplicity and stylish purity of Biedermeier interior, in historicist city spaces from the last decades of 19th century, people accumulated objects of all shapes and for different purposes, without desire to stylistically uniform them. Simple late baroque and practical Biedermeier pieces were replaced with massive neostyles furniture; especially popular were the "Alt Deutsch" units. The household furniture was used by many generations, and it has remained in museum and private collections. Cabinet making began in Novi Sad around mid 19th century; the largest manufactures were those that belonged to families Mennratt and Dusig. А large number of shops had household merchandise, usually of foreign origin. At the end of 19th century Novi Sad citizens filled their interiors with everyday and decorative objects made of metal, ceramic, porcelain, glass, decorative textile and art works. Lady of the house would often combine elements of Balkan and western cultures, both traditional and modem. Esthetics of historicism implied tolerance of products coming from different cultures, among these, oriental products were especially popular. Development of graphical disciplines made it possible to reproduce many significant art objects; especially popular were national themes and paintings of the most famous Serbian painters of that time.
Around 1900 the influence of secession was noticeable in Novi Sad, especially in architecture and applied arts. Despite the lack of а locally organized movement that would gather the supporters for the new international movement, an impetus came from socially engaged individuals, trained architects, trade agents, students and travelers that brought news, ideas and goods in demand New living conditions and standards in Novi Sad were noticeable from the first decade of the 20th century. Larger number of living units imposed more practical and simpler arrangement of space, good lighting and introduction of central heating. Pieces modeled in the style of French, German and Hungarian secession were more and more to Ъе found in homes, and their decorativeness, functionality and, often low cost, attracted many buyers. Technological process made available many objects that were made of different kinds of metal, ceramic and glass. New forms of furniture were bought to а smaller extent, and usually from foreign factories. At the same time, decorative textile was used in interiors, so there was а mixture of industrial and handmade materials, traditional and international ornaments and samples. Many women from Novi Sad did handiwork. using advice and patterns from the magazines.
At the turn of the 20th century, there appeared an array of people whose theoretical and practical work influenced all segments of fine and applied arts. Books and texts Ьу Мihailo Valtrović, Slobodan and Vladislav Titelbah, Savka Subotić, Jelica Belovic-Bernadžikovska, Dragutin Inkiostri Medenjak and others developed ideas about modernization and adjusting Serbian motifs to the demands of modern market and bourgeois society. Their work, although based on emphasizing national heritage, was completely in harmony with art movements that appeared all over Europe at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century.
Abstract (original language):
U avgusru 1907. godine, kralj Petar I Karađorđević je u pratnji kraljevića Aleksandra i svite posetio mesta koja se nalaze na putu od Brestovačke banje do Jagodine. Vladaru je priređen svečani doček sa elementima koji su bili karakteristični i za spektakle u vreme vladavine dinastije Obrenovića, a
Key words (original language):
javne svečanosti, razglednice, Petar I Karađorđević
Тhis paper deals with needs of king Petar I Кarađorđević to ensure his popularity and popularity of the Кarađorđević dynasty through bls presence in the public and his contacts with people. In this attempt mass media played а major role, and postcards presented the most efficient way to get the visually shaped ideological message through to the masses.
Тhis need of the king was а consequence of changes that happened in relation to old politics of dynastic propaganda programs. According to new democratized structure of the ruler's symbolic image, the sovereignty of the ruler and his power were not based on divine but on the will of the people. Тhе decrease in authority of the idea that а ruler's power originated from heaven and introducing citizens into the puЬlic political arena, imposed а need for а new representative culture. In that way that the existence and stability would Ье guaranteed to the newly estaЬlished order.
King Petar accepted the idea of а people's ruler that was present in Serbia during the Obrenović dynasty. Soon after his coming to the throne, he started his first journey around Serbia, and in the years that followed he had а prominent role in the public life of the country. In the summer of 1907 King Petar, accompanied by the Prince Aleksandar, visited places on the way from Brestovačka Banja to Jagodina. The ruler got an official welcome with the elements that were typical for spectacles of earlier periods and that were based on European practice originating from ancient times. The necessity for insistence on the legitimacy of his power conditioned the need for emphasizing the role of the founder of the Кarađorđević dynasty. Besides press that gave detailed descriptions of king's journey, the publishers from Jagodina printed postcards with motifs of public celebrations regarding king's reception in Jagodina that was the last stop on his journey in 1907.
Due to their characteristics, the postcards were suitable medium in the service of dynastic propaganda. In addition to portraits of the ruler and members of his family, the postcards with motives of public celebrations of political-dynastic character were printed. Since the main characteristic of these celebrations is ephemerality, postcards ensured that the memory of the events related to the ruling dinsaty were kept alive.
Abstract (original language):
Delatnost dvojice angažovanih umetnika, Arpada G. Balaža (1887-1981) i Miloša Babića (1904-1937), u periodu između dva svetska rata, na polju grafike i primenjene grafike - ilustracije, plakata i reklame - predstavlja značajne korake u razvoju tih likovnih disciplina kod nas. Balaž je jedan od os
Key words (original language):
ilustracija, plakat, film, ekspresionizam, kubofuturizam, konstruktivizam, socijalna umetnost, međuratna umetnost, ikonografija
This paper shows two artists born on the territory of the Austria-Hungary monarchy - Árpád G. Bálazs (1887-1981) and Miloš Ваbić (1904-1937) and focuses on their work in Subotica and in Belgrade, in the period between the two world wars. More is known about biography, and even educational background, about exhibitions and there is а number of works from the large opus of Árpád G. Bálazs, so that we can rely on а larger number of his work and essays about them. What is known about Miloš Ваbić is based on his designs for the poster in the collection of the Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade, and his nine oil paintings which are in Babić's legacy in the City Museum of Subotica, and on several studies about them and about the author. Bálazs, а student of Prague Academy, is one of the founders of Yugoslav graphic art, and one of rare representatives of monotype. He is also an important illustrator and pioneer of socially engaged graphic. He belongs to the circle of Lajos Кassák and Zoltán Csuka; and he worked closely with writers and journalists. His Belgrade studio was located in Kolarac National University from 1927 to 1942. From 1927 he was the illustrator of Yugoslavia oriented newspaper Vreme, and from 1937 with his expressive illustrations he influenced the forming of an art profile of Belgrade magazine for children Dečije Vreme. However, in the domain of illustrations, his capital works include bу illustrating the poems of Endre Ady; one of the greatest poets of Hungarian modern literature. These illustrations were created in 1929 and 1930, and they were the zenith of artist's activist work and reflections on The January 6th Dictatiorships, but they were also elocquent examples of expressionist art and illustrations as а discipline. At the same time, Miloš Ваbić developed distinguished/promineпt graphic design in Belgrade in 1923. Не used to visit the studio of applied art "Futur" probably until it was closed in 1927. That studio was run bу Oto Bihalji-Merin and his brother Pavle. Through Oto Bihalji-Merin, he followed German constructivism and the work of Bauhaus, and in his poster design he applied coпstructivist approach. Lajos Кassák was а propoпent of that approach in the poster art - in German literature that advertising teпdecy was known under the name "Elemeпtal Тypography". Ваbić was familiar with Zenit magazine, pubished in Zagreb from 1921-1923, and in Belgrade 1923- 1926. The magazine promoted the services of "Futur" studio: decorating and painting of bill posters оп пеw buildings. Bablć was known for his anti-militant attitude, like Ljubomir Micić, опе of the founders of the Zenit magazine. Typography of the Zenit used а пеw system of international typographical signs typical for the 1920s, and therefore it was also similar to Viennese magazine Danas (Ма) - question marks, arrows, squares, circles, vertically and diagonally arranged lines, prominent letters and numbers, and so оп. Advertising graphical work of Ваbić and his ten paintings could bе therefore tied to the zenithists. Ваbić followed the activism tendencies in art with his engaged painting and that connects him with the ideas of Arpad G. Balázs. Нis series of oil paintings that were created in Subotica between 1927-1937 were intended for the World's Exhibltion of Science and Technology in Paris in 1937 (Day-and-night work. The Banner of Реасе (around 1930), Anarchist at work, Satan's dream or а Vision of а War (1936), Warrior, Dictator(1936), Pilots, Rocketstation, also known as Metropolis, Air Earth Maneuver). In all these pictures he integrated clear attitude and content that corresponds to his poster drafts, especially in Fritz Lang's expressionist movie Metropolis (1926), that had а great influence оn the artists of that time, Ваbić and Balázs, too (the movie was shown in Subotica in April, 1927). Тhеу use specific iconographic toponims that appear in the movie (for example Moloh, engines, chimneys). Ваbić also uses the characteristical method of expressionist montage novel. Тhе famous example of this is the novel bу John Dos Pasos Manhattan Transver, 1925. Mystification of а city is а typical expressionist motif. Тhе literature of expressionism has а lot of images that besides а War picture Engines and а City. Two apparently nоn compatible extremes: apstractioп and visualization go hand in hand with emotionally emphasized visionary characteristics. Тhе movie Metropolis is а typical example of this dualism: оn one hand we see alegorical abstractions (the concept of the City itsef, then Work, Mass, Leader, Brain, Нands and Heart), аnd on the other hand, enormous power of visual expression, impressive, sugestive image. In that way among the work of Bablć and Balázs, we саn find оnе group that in its basic соntеnt has а topic of metropolis, work, engine, and also another group that refers to war. Bablć had а new motif of Antichrist, аnd his return was present as а motif in the second half of 19th century. А number of philosophical апd literary works bу F. Nietzsche, S. Lagerlof, Vladimir Solovjov and Endre Ady deal with this subject matter. The author might have met the motif of Antichrist in Belgrade through the magazine of anthroposophy movement Кnоw Yourself. that was published from 1931 to 1940. Iconographic model of the painting The Banner of Реасе, а triangle inserted into а circle, and also the word "реасе" written in Cyrillic, indicate that Bablć was familiar with the work of Russian constructivists, such as was the poster bу Е1 Lisicki from 1919, that figuratively showed the message:" Нit the whites with the red пail Ьу stabbing red а triangle into а white circle". Compositional parallel with Babić's painting is the illustration of Adie's poem Ву the Graveyard (1929, 1930), that in its upper left comer, has а square that looks like а window а pupil саn bе seen in it. On Babić's painting the specific compositioп is represented bу the globe, and with Balázs's, it is а mirror of the poet's soul closed in the square. Circle is а common motif for а number of Babić's paintings. Тhе applicatioп of а circle is present in art at the begining of 20th century апd more often in avant gard movements. There is а circle in the shape of а wheel in A.G. Balázs's illustration of Ady's poem Тhе Death оn the Railtracks (1929), and it clearly shows its connection with activist movemeпt and the Кassák circle, gathrered aroung а nеw Vienesse magazine and the application of its language of visual expression. In some Babić's paintings, the circle transforms into jin-jang. The use of this sign is an important part of the program of the serial. It is not found so often in European art at the beginning of 20th century, but it is famous, as is zen philosophy. Тhis Babić's serial testifies about his commitment аnd clear antiwar attitude. His tendencies to reach ballance - within the boundaries of symbolic content, are based оn а simple principe of dualism, whose micro- and macrosystem is represented in dualism of paintings and the whole serial. Нis icoпographic program manipulates with contrary terms such as: war-peace, demolition-building, chaos-order, division-unity, ruling-subordination, and so on. Comparative analysis of Ваić and Balázs's work, has resulted in noticing key toponims that include international stylistic and iconographic artistic practice on the wider European avantgard scene.
Abstract (original language):
U Tabakovićevim i Postružnikovim groteskama, nastalim u periodu održavanja Grafičke izložbe 1926. godine, pa do formiranja grupe "Zemlja" 1929. godine, mogu se prepoznati osnovne i suštinske linije razvoja hrvatske socijalno angažovane umetnosti. Tabaković i Postružnik sa jedne strane, pripadaju
Key words (original language):
groteske, Ivan Tabaković, Oton Postružnik, grafika, socijalno angažovana umetnost između dva svetska rata, grupa "Zemlja", Zagreb
Important encouragement in shaping socially engaged art in Croatia in the mid 1920s came from Ivan Tabaković and Oton Postružnik. Their art production, followed by "The Graphic Exhibition" in 1926, all the way to establishing the ideologically proliferated program based group "Zemlja" was bу no means only and directly burdened bу political dogmatism and art pragmatism. On one hand, Tabaković and Postružnik belonged to а wide group of Croatian artists permanently searching for national and cultural identity at the end of 20th century. On the other hand, they belonged to the milieu of not so numerous artists, who were led by positive human values, ethic and human principles, and who were trying to get actively involved in the critique of current social problems of their own society. Tabaković and Postružnik promoted and / or surpassed art practice of that time bу their awareness of necessity for changing the perspective of observing and recording social factors. Regardless of their status and class, the focal point of these two artists was the "man" presented through their grotesques, and exposed to the last vice, clearly depicting society, and implicitly referring to relationships within Croatian society in the 1920's. Socially motivated and critically directed graphic sketches and drawings of Ivan Tabaković's and Oton Postružnik's grotesques, confronted the taste of bourgeois audience and art critique ever since the Graphic exhibition, pointing towards possible ideological conflict and artistic controversies that would deepen and became а current issue three years later, after establishing socially engaged group "Zemlja". One should mention that their socially criticizing grotesques came very close to the most contemporary tendencies and practices of socially engaged art of German group "Neue Sachlicheit': that established its program in 1925.
Abstract (original language):
Zgrada filijale Državne hipotekarne banke podignuta je u centru Valjeva 1939. godine. Godinu dana ranije, list Politika je reprodukovao perspektivu projekta ove banke u tekstu o podizanju "najlepše zgrade u Valjevu". Zgradu su, po navodu Politike, projektovali g. g. Vasilije Baumgors
Key words (original language):
Vasilij fon Baumgarten, Hipotekarna banka, Valjevo, ar deko, međuratna arhitektura u Srbiji, Vladimir Zagorodnjuk, ar deko reljefi
The building of the State Mortgage Bank subsidiary was built in the center of Valjevo in 1939. А year earlier, newspaper Politika reproduced the design of the bank project in the text about constructing "the most beautiful building in Valjevo": According to the Politika the building was designed bу Mr. Vasilije Baumgorski and Velimir Janković, the architects of the State Mortgage Bank.
The incorrectly spelled name Baumgorski stands for the name of the architect Vasilije (Wilhelm) fon Baumgarten. His authorship was confirmed by the original designs that are kept in the bank building. As the author of а small but very representative opus, Baumgarten, together with Nicolai Krasnov, is considered one of the most important representatives of Russian immigrant architects. His opus includes Army and Navy Headquarters in Belgrade (1928), The Army house of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Skopje (1929), The Russian House in Belgrade (1933) and the Mortgage Bank in Pančevo (1940).
Besides the fact that it belongs to the opus of this significant artist, the bank building in Valjevo is one of the most important examples of Art Deco architectural style in this city and one of the most representative buildings, of this rarely studied building phenomena in Serbia. On the facade and in the bank interior there are reliefs and sculptures by the sculptor Vladimir Zagorodnjuk, who was also а Russian emigrant. Original look of the building is devastated by additional expansion and overbuilding. The preserved photograph from the early 1950s testifies about its stylistic, esthetic and artistic characteristic. This photograph initiated the writing of this paper.
Abstract (original language):
Cilj teksta o beorradskom Dizajn centru je da prikaže širi društveni, kulturni, ekonomski i politički kontekst prakse i teorije dizajna tokom poslednje dve decenije postojanja socijalističke Jugoslavije, kao sistemskog napora redefinicije opšteg društvenog života i poboljšanja uslova života (
Key words (original language):
Dizajn centar, dizajn (industriski, rrafički), časopis Industrijsko oblikovanje, jugoslovensko socijalističko društvo, tržište, industrijska proizvodnja, kultura oblikovanja, Zajednica za unapređenje dizajna, privredne reforme, Centar za industrijsko oblikovanje Zagreb
In what way is it possible to analyze construction and functioning of an institution for promotion and design development in а socialist society, and to do that from а contemporary position that gives design the place of formal practice usually in service of production - consumerism rules of а capitalistic neoliberal society? Belgrade Design Center, with its concept and activities has had multiple roles in education, theoretical elaboration, promotion and development mainly of industrial design in the dynamic Yugoslav socialist society. During the foundation and operation of the Design center in the early 1970s, the society distanced itself significantly from the principles of economic liberalization and market economy, and came closer to the reformed concept of self-management Later, during the 1990s, the countries of post-Yugoslav area went through transformation from socialism into capitalism. There was transition from social and state ownership to the private one, to multiparty system, towards the principles of free enterprise and towards "nominalization" of the society according to the patterns of liberal capitalism.
Following the main trends of economy and society development of the socialist Yugoslavia, on one hand. beginning of mass production, planning and design within the process of industrialization made way for developing а socialist society in which new relationships towards material culture should influence the development of more humane relationships among people. On the other hand, an increase in material production and (also) in consumerism society was supposed to inform а man from the socialist society about the achievements of material and spiritual civilizations, while living standards were low. Later, during the 1960s, instead of the earlier concept of getting rid of poverty, life style was emphasized and middle class was formed. The reasons for this were found in the fetishism of technical and industrial commodities, in а sudden jump into industrial civilization and in growing importance of private ownership (as the imperative of social and material security). The role of design and its institutional promotion had several significant points: founding Zagreb Center for Industrial Design, biannual exhibition of Industrial Design in Ljubljana and Belgrade Design Center as one of the most important institution of the kind in the last decades of 20th century.
Abstract (original language):
Osnovni motiv ovog teksta sadržan je u pokušaju da se pre svega ukaže na istorijsko i tipološko poreklo oblika oltarske pregrade, bogoslovske uticaje i razloge koji su uticali na odabir njenog modela za savremen primer. Kroz deskriptivnu metodu iznete su njene osobenosti koje se tiču porekla obli
Key words (original language):
paraklis, savremeni liturgijski mobilijar, sakralni enterijer, oltarska pregrada, portal, proskinitar, ciborijum, kapitel, pod, stub
The construction of the Bishop Palace in Кraljevo was competed in 2009. The Parekklesion of the church is dedicated to Forty Martyrs оf Sebastopolis. Тhе Parekklesion decoration demanded designing altar barrier, floor and column lining. This decoration was entrusted to the architect Dimitrije Lj. Marinković.
In 2009 stone altar barrier with proskinitarions was installed in the area between east piers supporting the dome and between piers and sidewalls. The applied architectural соnсерt of horizontal and vertical division is based on the models of low stone altar barriers with side proskinitarions dating back to the time when Raška School churches were build. Application of proskinitarions with consoles is determined by iconographic nature of the altar barrier. Although this altar barrier conceptually imitates older types, the applied system of decoration and proliferation is unique. The composite capital is the most complex and the most prominent element that got the special attention during the construction process. Тhematic соntеnt of artistic treatment of parapet surfaces was determined by an attempt to transfer an old motif from the rich stavrography heritage of Serbian tombstone marks with apotropaic characteristics.
Architectonics of the altar barrier with proskinitarion derive from older models of that type. Within the freedom of interpretation of historical decorative elements and their interrelationships, one could read and interpret author's efforts for transformation and improvement of certain architectural features of the older types of altar barriers. With its shape of emphasized verticalness, the altar barrier with its slender proskinitarions is an attempt to imitate rather than conform to already existing elongation of the parekklesion. With these proportions, it is more а type than а model, and it creates а unique geometrical-compositional example. The undertaken proliferation at certain places of the altar barrier is the result of partially first hand takeover of certain elements from architectural heritage which was found and established in the past. The language of painting that is used in shaping the most important architectural elements such as the composite capital and transpositions of crosslike relief decorations in parapets emphasize the creative expression of the designer.
Artistic formulation of the floor should emphasize the importance of parekklesion. It is done as unison of art languages transposed from sacral and national ethnographic art heritage. Certain details have elements that are used as а sign of decorative unison of designed interior elements and liturgy furniture that developed from а uniformed expression of the author.
This example of а sacral space decoration represents an attempt to find а program solution that will be in harmony with space and its worship purposes. Above all it is an example of how author researches historical sources and models, and interprets historical-artistic fundus relationship, and tradition in contemporary and ecclesiastical applied art.
Abstract (original language):
Dobrovićev vizionarski rad na osmišljavanju "Velikog Beograda" kao metropole na Savi i Dunavu, njegov udeo u izgradnji Novog Beograda "središnjeg dela budućeg Velikog Beograda" koji se do donošenja Generalnog urbanističkog plana 1950. godine, odvijao pod njegovim rukovodstvom - to su bile smernice za
Key words (original language):
kulturno-istorijsko nasleđe, urbanizam, arhitektura, urbana morfologija, rehabilitacija, revitalizacija
Belgrade is а city with many different environments: it is partially spread over hills, partly it is situated in alluvium - the New Belgrade, and partly it is а city that lies on the loess flatland - Zemun. The capital symbols of Belgrade identity are rivers the Sava and the Danube. the confluence as а point where they join, but also the fact that in their immediate background there is а succession of spatial cultural-historical unities and cultural heritage such as: the fortress of Belgrade, the Кosančić Crescent, Old Belgrade fairground, the Old City complex. Senjak. Topčider Hill and Dedinje, the old center of Zemun and so on.
In order to preserve the complete image of Belgrade, it is а priority to formulate clearly the elements, that is to say, representative examples that are the landmarks of cultural-historic intertwining through time and space. We have chosen two examples, one on the right, and the other one on the left bank of the Save, in hope that it would encourage formulating (and later carrying through) the politics of their rehabilitation, as well as preventing physical, social and economic degradation of these significant historical city entities (by respecting the principles of integral conservation).
In spite of everything, these areas are still by dominated urban ( urban morphology) and architectural (architectural typology) relationships. These relationships were established during historical development of Belgrade and they still have а significant influence on the city life. One area is on the left bank of the Sava River, on the New Belgrade side. It is so called "the old Belgrade Fairground': an old entity of New Belgrade. The other area is on the right bank of the Sava River, in the old Belgrade, on the intersection of Knez Miloša and Nemanjina streets, the complex of buildings known as "Dobrović Headquarters".
Throughout the development of Belgrade, these two areas remain cultural-historic unities of great value. They are parts of the city with characteristic properties that the city is remembered by. In the wide spectrum of shapes that are present in architectural heritage, these areas stand out by recognizable spirit (genus loci) of Belgrade, but also for individual objects, examples of author architecture, as important landmarks in urban and social development of the city. "Monumentality of the object, should not be understood as dandyism of the buildings and costliness of used materials, but as а ratio of masses, areas, lines, not-built and built areas, dead architecture of buildings and live vegetation, that are reflected on its proportional harmonizing, implementation of strong strike, with which the plastic architecture of the city, both as а whole and its individual parts, gains on artistic significance" as it was written on one occasion by the author and creator of the General Urban plan of Belgrade 1950 and the author of the complex of buildings of Headquarters, the architect Nikola Dobrović.
The unity of space and composition of "Old Belgrade Fairground", not only had economic significance, but it also became а methaphor for а complex built according to а plan. The total outlook of the complex, and its compositional connection of every architectural object, influenced new perspectives of urban development of Belgrade on the left bank of the Sava river. The designs for "The Old Belgrade Fairgrounds" were created by architects Rajko Tatić, Milivој Тričković and Đorđe Lukić. In 1938, these three architect were awarded "The Medal of Yugoslav Crown" for making а general disposition of Old Belgrade Fairground and social pavillions.
The destiny of "Old Belgrade Fairground" has been pressing one for decades and no solution has been offered yet. Its building, not only advanced the modem image of Belgrade of that time, but also marked the beginning of modernization of Belgrade at аll urban levels. On the other side, "The Old Belgrade Fairground" is а monument and а memorial which task was to record а name of each victim, Jewish, Serbin, Roma and all other nationalities, but also the names of those who risked their lives by trying to save them. Their non marked and unknown graves have been scattered all over "The Old Belgrade Fairground". We hope that this "legacy for remembrance': and also nursery of modem space ideas, will soon be raised to the right level.
Symbolism of the building complex, that are according to its creator Nikola Dobrović, known today among experts and public as "Dobrovic Headquarters" fits the symbolisms of New Belgrade, "the central part of а future Great Belgrade", that was carried out under DoЬrović's leadership until the General Urban plan of Вelgrade was passed in 1950. He created and carried through the "Вelgrade Urban Plan from 1948". Among the names such as Franc Janke, Emilijan Josimović, Alban Šambon, Đorde Кovaljevski and many other important people in the history of Belgrade urbanism, there is also the name of Nikola Dobrović. Understanding the multilayered personality of Nikola Dobrović during the period of new political situation on the territory of former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and then the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. and from 1945, the period of socialist "Restoring and building" all the way to his death in 1967, is done by а systematic analysis of a large number of joint parameters that undoubtedly defined his construction logic.
Primarily new materials, new technologies, new techniques, and above all, new methodologies are taken into account Injustice and his emotional defeats in Belgrade construction field follow him today, forty years after his death. During the NATO bombing in 1999 the building collapsed completely. It has no function any longer, but the symbolic character of the place is present even in the ruins, warning us that it was the only work that was realized by the architect Dobrović in Вelgrade. Total erasing of this complex from the tap of city space would break historical continuity of this area and one of the landmarks of the city identity would have disappeared.
The purpose of this work is to spur action on these objects that are essential fur identity of the City of Belgrade. They are priorities for rehabilitation and emphasizing the importance of making them "visible" in "The Strategic Plan for the development of City of Belgrade".
Funkcija, kakav lepi oblik...

Function, what a lovely shape...
Abstract (original language):
Odnos oblika i funkcije oduvek je provocirao teoretičare dizajna, a njerovo tumačenje proizvelo je dalekosežne posledice po celokupan društveni život. Složenost relacija u kojima prebiva dizajnirani predmet, pre svega, zahvaljujući ovom, suštinski dvostrukom određenju, predstavlja rezultat sudara d
Key words (original language):
oblik, funkcija, formalizam, funkcionalizam, teorija dizajna, istorija dizajna
Consideration of the relationship between shape and function is one of the most important probems of the theory of design and it has far reaching effects both on the relationship of а designer towards his creation, and on social life as а whole. The complexity of relationships in which а designed object is found, due to this essentially dual determination, is а result of а clash of two big culture domains: art and technique. Since these two domains do not have to bе considered fundametnally different, or opposed it could turn out that their products have more similarities than it was originally thought. In that light, the fundamental problem of the theory of design, and that is the probem of shape and function relationship, could get different intrepretation, and tension between esthetic and usage characteristics of the object could prove to bе derived, not the original one.The designed object would not have to bе considered exclusively; not even predominantly as an object that needs to have а certan in function. It could bе also considered as an estetical entity. Even more, complete consideration of its function, that is to say the nature of the designed object may include а number of technological, commercial, esthetic, symbolic and eccological conditions of creation, survival and decay of the object.
In the history of design, there have been recorded different approaches to interpretation of shape and function relationship, but there are two opposing ones that stand out formal and functional approach. The first one was advocated mainly by esthetics, and the second one by theorists and design practitioners. These two approaches have not resulted in two theories about the shape and function relationship, but in а whole array of somehow different interpretations of the fundamental problem of design. Nuances of different interpretations, as а matter of fact, point at the essence of these concepts, but also at the sensitivity of meaning of their relationships. Although many attempts of interpretation care out of hope that the final answer to this question would be possible, the question has not been answered yet, and serves as а basis for different kinds of theoretical elaborations and practical results.
Every designed object, as an object that should be used for something, points at the purpose that is outside itself, but as an оbјect that represents опе estethical entity, it is determined by its inner, formal organization, as well as with the relationship with other objects and everything else that surrounds it. Finally it turns out that what is usually understood as а function, is its immediate use. Although it is considered its basic function, it is by no means the only function of the designed object, and not even the unique one. Namely, when in use, the designed object performes а number of interrelated functions. Besides, the object is characterised by different meanings, and it has а symbolic tension and esthetic value, its creation is conditioned by different technological solutions and economic profitability; and its disposal by ecological standards. All these mentioned meanings and terms could Ье counted as functions, because, indeed, the object that is considered from different perspectives has to be able to meet all kinds of different expectations.
In brief, а function of а designed object is а unity of its different terms. Motto "forma follows function" that has dominated design practice, proved to be very inspirational, and its various interpretations gave different results. Besides, due to high technology development, microelectronics and the study of material, the shape and function relationship shows its curious nature and its relevance could be accepted or rejected. However, the hope that radical and single interpretation of shape and function relationship can lead to successful design has waned and become а starting point of irony of the postmodern quotation.
Abstract (original language):
Maestri del dubbio, Bertozzi & Casoni ci hanno consegnato opere icopograficamente improbabili (una scimmia albina su un tavolo di Saarinen ricoperto con una crinolina, upo scheletro che falcia sop il tosaerba un prato fiorito, vassoi e piatti accatastati sop i resti di truculepti pasti e baratt
Key words (original language):
ceramica, bellezza, trash, perfezionismo tecnico ed esecutivo, figurazione, concettualita, "vantas", eclettismo, ambivalenza, dubbio / keramika, lepota, đubre, tehnički i izvođački perfekcionizam, firuracija, koncepcija, "vanitas" (taština), eklektizam, ambivalentnost, sumnja
Giampaolo Bertozzi and Stefano Dal Monte Casoni have been working together from 1980, under the brand-name Bertozzi & Casoni, as а registered company with shared responsability: this formula means, from the beginning of their work, pure artistic cooperation and very precize sculptural work, aimed to find а sophisticated collocation with the world of the contemporary art. Precize in this case means that the work of Bertozzi & Casoni, even in the moments of greatest connivance, ideal or operational, with its emerginng tendences, crosschecked а superior and privileged interest for the less problematic facts of the work of modern art: it oscilated between executive perfectionism and fixed, formal and technical results, which were never obtained before. Sophisticated means that the two artists decided to follow the process of repairing and healing artistic researches from existing doubts of our time, so they have chosen the "abnormal" expressive means in the field of modern art: the ceramics.
During almost three decades of their working together, their initial reasons and choices have produced internationally recognized results. This creative binomial has realized the most convincing works of art using the paritethic propositional alternative: the опе of style and thinking. With continual adjourning, Bertozzi & Casoni have introduced on scene an artistic rappresentation comparable with the great baroque theatre, with а calculated and clear language, similar to the language of great narrators from the beginning of past century. These are antinomies of their work, with no fear of confrontation with figurative concepts, even the antique ones, or with concepts of abstract art with decorative ideas, with vanguard and neo-avanguard art, or conceptualistic negativity. There are not many texts written about those two artists who were ready to protrude over the most dangerous abysses of art and reality, bringing us а sense of vertigo instead of security. The objects of their "relieves" and "measuring" are not, like in the old times, existing exemplars and old forms, but а sort of modern magma which cannot be reduced to а unique and prec
Abstract (original language):
Muzej primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu na dan 6. novembra 2010. obeležava šezdeset godina rada. Cilj ovog kratkog istorijskog osvrta je da skrene pažnju na glavne profesionalne domete ove institucije. Osnovu prikaza predstavlja prolazak kroz šest faza istorijata institucije koje su obeležili tadašnj
Key words (original language):
Muzej primenjene umetnosti, istorijat, organizaciona struktura, programske aktivnosti, strategija
Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade celebrated its 60th Anniversary on November 6, 2010. Our aim in this short historical review is to point to the major professional reaches of this institution. The main stream of this essay represents а tour through six phases of the Institution's history that was strongly marked bу the professionals that served as its heads. Along with the managerial energies of the directors, the Museum's organizational structure and its program activities form the parts of its present identity. The look into the future, which features in the second part of the text, reveals the Museum as а dynamic, modern, highly professional and competent institution with an important role on both local and international cultural maps.
Marija Bujić, Dušan Milovanović, Draginja Maskareli, Jelena Perać, Balša Đurić, Bojana Popović, Biljana Vukotić