Journal 6 / 2010 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
ISSN 2466-460X (Online)
ISSN 0522-8328 (Printed edition)
PDF of the printed edition (22.6 MB)
Editor in Chief: Ivanka Zorić
Issue Editor: Ljiljana Miletić-Аbramović, M.A.
Predrag Dragojević, Рh. D. Ivaпka Zorić Milica Janković, М.А. Ljiljana Мiletić-Abramović, М.А. Jelena Perać, М.А. Jadranka Prolović, Рh. D. Mirjana Roter-Blagojević, Рh. D.
Issue Editorial Assistant: Andrijana Ristić, М.А.All the papers in the sections Contributions, Polemics, Critic Reviews and Reviews are peer reviewed.
Contents of the Jouurnal 6 / 2010 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
THE BINDING OF SERBIAN MUNICH PSALTER
The Ъооk Ыосk of the Psalter is sewn with Ьiaxial arrangement of stitch, more precisely, the two halves are attached to the wooden boards in "V" configuration of groove and holes. Enbands has а cross-stitched pattem in four colors: red, green, Ыuе and yellow around three cords. The cord support of the endbands, in the previoш phase was wrapped with natural thread and anchornig to the book Ыосk and wooden board, with oblique holes from the edge to the outside of the board. The whole Psalter is covered in dark brown leather and fastened with two brass rings and pegs and with three entwined leather belts. The front and back cover are decorated with Ьlind tooling of an individual impression. Both covers have similar composition. Тhе composition on both front and back cover is made of two concentric frames and of two friezes on the upper and bottom side of the middle rectangle. The central section is crossed with slanted and horizontal lines. The space between the lines is filled with ornaments of stylized plants and with vignettes.
The cover of Munich Psalter testifies about patriarch Pajsije great skill and about his gift for composing the omaments. With his literary work, patriarch Pajsije was the last author of medieval Serblan literature. The same could Ье said about his Ъinding - the one of the Munich Psalter: Ьу its technique, bookЬinding structure and ornamentations on the leather, it is an example of SerЬian medieval Ьinding.
BEGINNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF TNE KINGDOM OF SERBIA CONCEPT IN BAROQUE HISTORIOGRAPHY AND VISUAL MEDIA
TNE APPEARANCE OF BOURGEOIS INTERIORS IN NOVI SAD AT TNE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURY
Intensive urban growth, city regulation, population growth and increase in prosperity introduced standards for comfortable and settled city life, so that families of craftsmen, tradesmen, clerks and of the intellectuals aspired to live in keeping with their social status, income and upbringing. At the end of the 19tЬ century, mainly one-floor-family houses were built in the centre of Novi Sad. On the ground floor there were usually premises for family business, and the household units were on the first floor. Drawing room, living room and master bedroom were the most presentable parts of the house and they were furnished in the fashion of that time. А11 significant inventory, invaluable for studying the development of applied arts, was located in these three rooms. Collecting, storing and exhibiting different objects became а social responsibility of every city family; and the lady of the house would make an effort to acquire good quality furniture, carpets, curtains, porcelain and silverware, books, paintings, musical instruments, family albums and souvenirs. А wom.an had an important role in arranging and keeping а household. With her taste, skills and neatness she tried to create ambience that would correspond to the family needs and aspirations of bourgeois society.
Contrary to simplicity and stylish purity of Biedermeier interior, in historicist city spaces from the last decades of 19th century, people accumulated objects of all shapes and for different purposes, without desire to stylistically uniform them. Simple late baroque and practical Biedermeier pieces were replaced with massive neostyles furniture; especially popular were the "Alt Deutsch" units. The household furniture was used by many generations, and it has remained in museum and private collections. Cabinet making began in Novi Sad around mid 19th century; the largest manufactures were those that belonged to families Mennratt and Dusig. А large number of shops had household merchandise, usually of foreign origin. At the end of 19th century Novi Sad citizens filled their interiors with everyday and decorative objects made of metal, ceramic, porcelain, glass, decorative textile and art works. Lady of the house would often combine elements of Balkan and western cultures, both traditional and modem. Esthetics of historicism implied tolerance of products coming from different cultures, among these, oriental products were especially popular. Development of graphical disciplines made it possible to reproduce many significant art objects; especially popular were national themes and paintings of the most famous Serbian painters of that time.
Around 1900 the influence of secession was noticeable in Novi Sad, especially in architecture and applied arts. Despite the lack of а locally organized movement that would gather the supporters for the new international movement, an impetus came from socially engaged individuals, trained architects, trade agents, students and travelers that brought news, ideas and goods in demand New living conditions and standards in Novi Sad were noticeable from the first decade of the 20th century. Larger number of living units imposed more practical and simpler arrangement of space, good lighting and introduction of central heating. Pieces modeled in the style of French, German and Hungarian secession were more and more to Ъе found in homes, and their decorativeness, functionality and, often low cost, attracted many buyers. Technological process made available many objects that were made of different kinds of metal, ceramic and glass. New forms of furniture were bought to а smaller extent, and usually from foreign factories. At the same time, decorative textile was used in interiors, so there was а mixture of industrial and handmade materials, traditional and international ornaments and samples. Many women from Novi Sad did handiwork. using advice and patterns from the magazines.
At the turn of the 20th century, there appeared an array of people whose theoretical and practical work influenced all segments of fine and applied arts. Books and texts Ьу Мihailo Valtrović, Slobodan and Vladislav Titelbah, Savka Subotić, Jelica Belovic-Bernadžikovska, Dragutin Inkiostri Medenjak and others developed ideas about modernization and adjusting Serbian motifs to the demands of modern market and bourgeois society. Their work, although based on emphasizing national heritage, was completely in harmony with art movements that appeared all over Europe at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century.
TNE ROLE OF POSTCARDS WITH IMAGES OF PUBLIC CELEBRATIONS IN TNE DYNASTIC PROPAGANDA OF PETAR I KARADJORDJEVIĆ
Тhis need of the king was а consequence of changes that happened in relation to old politics of dynastic propaganda programs. According to new democratized structure of the ruler's symbolic image, the sovereignty of the ruler and his power were not based on divine but on the will of the people. Тhе decrease in authority of the idea that а ruler's power originated from heaven and introducing citizens into the puЬlic political arena, imposed а need for а new representative culture. In that way that the existence and stability would Ье guaranteed to the newly estaЬlished order.
King Petar accepted the idea of а people's ruler that was present in Serbia during the Obrenović dynasty. Soon after his coming to the throne, he started his first journey around Serbia, and in the years that followed he had а prominent role in the public life of the country. In the summer of 1907 King Petar, accompanied by the Prince Aleksandar, visited places on the way from Brestovačka Banja to Jagodina. The ruler got an official welcome with the elements that were typical for spectacles of earlier periods and that were based on European practice originating from ancient times. The necessity for insistence on the legitimacy of his power conditioned the need for emphasizing the role of the founder of the Кarađorđević dynasty. Besides press that gave detailed descriptions of king's journey, the publishers from Jagodina printed postcards with motifs of public celebrations regarding king's reception in Jagodina that was the last stop on his journey in 1907.
Due to their characteristics, the postcards were suitable medium in the service of dynastic propaganda. In addition to portraits of the ruler and members of his family, the postcards with motives of public celebrations of political-dynastic character were printed. Since the main characteristic of these celebrations is ephemerality, postcards ensured that the memory of the events related to the ruling dinsaty were kept alive.
PARALLELS OF ACTIVISM: CUBO-EXPRESSIONISM, FUTURISM AND CONSTRUCTIVISM IN TNE WORK OF BALÁZS G. ÁRPÁD AND MILOŠ BABIĆ
TNE GROTESQUES OF IVAN TABAKOVIĆ AND OTON POSTRUŽNIK : FROM "TNE GRAPHIC EXNIBITION" TO ESABLISHING TNE ARTISTIC GROUP "ZEMLJA"
THE STATE MORTGAGE BANK BUILDING IN VALJEVO : AN UNKNOWN WORK OF TNE ARCHITECT VASILIJE FON BAUMGARTEN
The incorrectly spelled name Baumgorski stands for the name of the architect Vasilije (Wilhelm) fon Baumgarten. His authorship was confirmed by the original designs that are kept in the bank building. As the author of а small but very representative opus, Baumgarten, together with Nicolai Krasnov, is considered one of the most important representatives of Russian immigrant architects. His opus includes Army and Navy Headquarters in Belgrade (1928), The Army house of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Skopje (1929), The Russian House in Belgrade (1933) and the Mortgage Bank in Pančevo (1940).
Besides the fact that it belongs to the opus of this significant artist, the bank building in Valjevo is one of the most important examples of Art Deco architectural style in this city and one of the most representative buildings, of this rarely studied building phenomena in Serbia. On the facade and in the bank interior there are reliefs and sculptures by the sculptor Vladimir Zagorodnjuk, who was also а Russian emigrant. Original look of the building is devastated by additional expansion and overbuilding. The preserved photograph from the early 1950s testifies about its stylistic, esthetic and artistic characteristic. This photograph initiated the writing of this paper.
TNE DESIGN CENTER, BELGRADE: A CONTRIBUTION TO TNE HISTORY OF ONE ORGANIZATION FOR EDUCATION, PROMOTION AND DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Following the main trends of economy and society development of the socialist Yugoslavia, on one hand. beginning of mass production, planning and design within the process of industrialization made way for developing а socialist society in which new relationships towards material culture should influence the development of more humane relationships among people. On the other hand, an increase in material production and (also) in consumerism society was supposed to inform а man from the socialist society about the achievements of material and spiritual civilizations, while living standards were low. Later, during the 1960s, instead of the earlier concept of getting rid of poverty, life style was emphasized and middle class was formed. The reasons for this were found in the fetishism of technical and industrial commodities, in а sudden jump into industrial civilization and in growing importance of private ownership (as the imperative of social and material security). The role of design and its institutional promotion had several significant points: founding Zagreb Center for Industrial Design, biannual exhibition of Industrial Design in Ljubljana and Belgrade Design Center as one of the most important institution of the kind in the last decades of 20th century.
TNE INTERIOR DESIGN OF FORTY MARTYRS OF SEBASTE PAREKKLESION IN TNE BISHOP PALACE IN KRALJEVO
In 2009 stone altar barrier with proskinitarions was installed in the area between east piers supporting the dome and between piers and sidewalls. The applied architectural соnсерt of horizontal and vertical division is based on the models of low stone altar barriers with side proskinitarions dating back to the time when Raška School churches were build. Application of proskinitarions with consoles is determined by iconographic nature of the altar barrier. Although this altar barrier conceptually imitates older types, the applied system of decoration and proliferation is unique. The composite capital is the most complex and the most prominent element that got the special attention during the construction process. Тhematic соntеnt of artistic treatment of parapet surfaces was determined by an attempt to transfer an old motif from the rich stavrography heritage of Serbian tombstone marks with apotropaic characteristics.
Architectonics of the altar barrier with proskinitarion derive from older models of that type. Within the freedom of interpretation of historical decorative elements and their interrelationships, one could read and interpret author's efforts for transformation and improvement of certain architectural features of the older types of altar barriers. With its shape of emphasized verticalness, the altar barrier with its slender proskinitarions is an attempt to imitate rather than conform to already existing elongation of the parekklesion. With these proportions, it is more а type than а model, and it creates а unique geometrical-compositional example. The undertaken proliferation at certain places of the altar barrier is the result of partially first hand takeover of certain elements from architectural heritage which was found and established in the past. The language of painting that is used in shaping the most important architectural elements such as the composite capital and transpositions of crosslike relief decorations in parapets emphasize the creative expression of the designer.
Artistic formulation of the floor should emphasize the importance of parekklesion. It is done as unison of art languages transposed from sacral and national ethnographic art heritage. Certain details have elements that are used as а sign of decorative unison of designed interior elements and liturgy furniture that developed from а uniformed expression of the author.
This example of а sacral space decoration represents an attempt to find а program solution that will be in harmony with space and its worship purposes. Above all it is an example of how author researches historical sources and models, and interprets historical-artistic fundus relationship, and tradition in contemporary and ecclesiastical applied art.
TNE IMPORTANCE OF "TNE OLD FAIRGROUND" AND "DOBROVIĆ HEADQUARTERS" FOR TNE IDENTITY OF BELGRADE
In order to preserve the complete image of Belgrade, it is а priority to formulate clearly the elements, that is to say, representative examples that are the landmarks of cultural-historic intertwining through time and space. We have chosen two examples, one on the right, and the other one on the left bank of the Save, in hope that it would encourage formulating (and later carrying through) the politics of their rehabilitation, as well as preventing physical, social and economic degradation of these significant historical city entities (by respecting the principles of integral conservation).
In spite of everything, these areas are still by dominated urban ( urban morphology) and architectural (architectural typology) relationships. These relationships were established during historical development of Belgrade and they still have а significant influence on the city life. One area is on the left bank of the Sava River, on the New Belgrade side. It is so called "the old Belgrade Fairground': an old entity of New Belgrade. The other area is on the right bank of the Sava River, in the old Belgrade, on the intersection of Knez Miloša and Nemanjina streets, the complex of buildings known as "Dobrović Headquarters".
Throughout the development of Belgrade, these two areas remain cultural-historic unities of great value. They are parts of the city with characteristic properties that the city is remembered by. In the wide spectrum of shapes that are present in architectural heritage, these areas stand out by recognizable spirit (genus loci) of Belgrade, but also for individual objects, examples of author architecture, as important landmarks in urban and social development of the city. "Monumentality of the object, should not be understood as dandyism of the buildings and costliness of used materials, but as а ratio of masses, areas, lines, not-built and built areas, dead architecture of buildings and live vegetation, that are reflected on its proportional harmonizing, implementation of strong strike, with which the plastic architecture of the city, both as а whole and its individual parts, gains on artistic significance" as it was written on one occasion by the author and creator of the General Urban plan of Belgrade 1950 and the author of the complex of buildings of Headquarters, the architect Nikola Dobrović.
The unity of space and composition of "Old Belgrade Fairground", not only had economic significance, but it also became а methaphor for а complex built according to а plan. The total outlook of the complex, and its compositional connection of every architectural object, influenced new perspectives of urban development of Belgrade on the left bank of the Sava river. The designs for "The Old Belgrade Fairgrounds" were created by architects Rajko Tatić, Milivој Тričković and Đorđe Lukić. In 1938, these three architect were awarded "The Medal of Yugoslav Crown" for making а general disposition of Old Belgrade Fairground and social pavillions.
The destiny of "Old Belgrade Fairground" has been pressing one for decades and no solution has been offered yet. Its building, not only advanced the modem image of Belgrade of that time, but also marked the beginning of modernization of Belgrade at аll urban levels. On the other side, "The Old Belgrade Fairground" is а monument and а memorial which task was to record а name of each victim, Jewish, Serbin, Roma and all other nationalities, but also the names of those who risked their lives by trying to save them. Their non marked and unknown graves have been scattered all over "The Old Belgrade Fairground". We hope that this "legacy for remembrance': and also nursery of modem space ideas, will soon be raised to the right level.
Symbolism of the building complex, that are according to its creator Nikola Dobrović, known today among experts and public as "Dobrovic Headquarters" fits the symbolisms of New Belgrade, "the central part of а future Great Belgrade", that was carried out under DoЬrović's leadership until the General Urban plan of Вelgrade was passed in 1950. He created and carried through the "Вelgrade Urban Plan from 1948". Among the names such as Franc Janke, Emilijan Josimović, Alban Šambon, Đorde Кovaljevski and many other important people in the history of Belgrade urbanism, there is also the name of Nikola Dobrović. Understanding the multilayered personality of Nikola Dobrović during the period of new political situation on the territory of former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and then the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. and from 1945, the period of socialist "Restoring and building" all the way to his death in 1967, is done by а systematic analysis of a large number of joint parameters that undoubtedly defined his construction logic.
Primarily new materials, new technologies, new techniques, and above all, new methodologies are taken into account Injustice and his emotional defeats in Belgrade construction field follow him today, forty years after his death. During the NATO bombing in 1999 the building collapsed completely. It has no function any longer, but the symbolic character of the place is present even in the ruins, warning us that it was the only work that was realized by the architect Dobrović in Вelgrade. Total erasing of this complex from the tap of city space would break historical continuity of this area and one of the landmarks of the city identity would have disappeared.
The purpose of this work is to spur action on these objects that are essential fur identity of the City of Belgrade. They are priorities for rehabilitation and emphasizing the importance of making them "visible" in "The Strategic Plan for the development of City of Belgrade".
Funkcija, kakav lepi oblik...
TNE PROBLEM OF SNARE AND FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP IN DESIGN
Function, what a lovely shape...
In the history of design, there have been recorded different approaches to interpretation of shape and function relationship, but there are two opposing ones that stand out formal and functional approach. The first one was advocated mainly by esthetics, and the second one by theorists and design practitioners. These two approaches have not resulted in two theories about the shape and function relationship, but in а whole array of somehow different interpretations of the fundamental problem of design. Nuances of different interpretations, as а matter of fact, point at the essence of these concepts, but also at the sensitivity of meaning of their relationships. Although many attempts of interpretation care out of hope that the final answer to this question would be possible, the question has not been answered yet, and serves as а basis for different kinds of theoretical elaborations and practical results.
Every designed object, as an object that should be used for something, points at the purpose that is outside itself, but as an оbјect that represents опе estethical entity, it is determined by its inner, formal organization, as well as with the relationship with other objects and everything else that surrounds it. Finally it turns out that what is usually understood as а function, is its immediate use. Although it is considered its basic function, it is by no means the only function of the designed object, and not even the unique one. Namely, when in use, the designed object performes а number of interrelated functions. Besides, the object is characterised by different meanings, and it has а symbolic tension and esthetic value, its creation is conditioned by different technological solutions and economic profitability; and its disposal by ecological standards. All these mentioned meanings and terms could Ье counted as functions, because, indeed, the object that is considered from different perspectives has to be able to meet all kinds of different expectations.
In brief, а function of а designed object is а unity of its different terms. Motto "forma follows function" that has dominated design practice, proved to be very inspirational, and its various interpretations gave different results. Besides, due to high technology development, microelectronics and the study of material, the shape and function relationship shows its curious nature and its relevance could be accepted or rejected. However, the hope that radical and single interpretation of shape and function relationship can lead to successful design has waned and become а starting point of irony of the postmodern quotation.
BERTOZZI AND CAZZONI: TNE PERFORMATIVE PERFECTIONISM IN TNE SERVICE OF A DOUBT
During almost three decades of their working together, their initial reasons and choices have produced internationally recognized results. This creative binomial has realized the most convincing works of art using the paritethic propositional alternative: the опе of style and thinking. With continual adjourning, Bertozzi & Casoni have introduced on scene an artistic rappresentation comparable with the great baroque theatre, with а calculated and clear language, similar to the language of great narrators from the beginning of past century. These are antinomies of their work, with no fear of confrontation with figurative concepts, even the antique ones, or with concepts of abstract art with decorative ideas, with vanguard and neo-avanguard art, or conceptualistic negativity. There are not many texts written about those two artists who were ready to protrude over the most dangerous abysses of art and reality, bringing us а sense of vertigo instead of security. The objects of their "relieves" and "measuring" are not, like in the old times, existing exemplars and old forms, but а sort of modern magma which cannot be reduced to а unique and prec
MUSEUM OF APPLIED ART IN BELGRADE: ITS PAST 60 YEARS AND LOOKING INTO TNE FUTURE
THE EXHIBITION OF PIROT RUGS IN BEIJING