Journal 14 / 2018 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)

ISSN 2466-460X (Online)

ISSN 0522-8328 (Printed edition)
PDF of the printed edition (3.2 MB)

Editor in Chief: Ljiljana Miletić Аbramović, MA

Issue Editor: Jelena Popović

Editorial Board:
Claudia Casali, PhD (International Museum of Ceramics, Faenza, Italy)
Jelena Erdeljan, PhD (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade)
Slobodan Danko Selinkić (University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad)
Miroslav Karić (Remont – Independent Artistic Association, Belgrade)
Ljiljana Miletić Abramović, MA (Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade)
Jelena Popović (Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade)
Andrijana Ristić, MA (Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade)

Issue Editorial Assistant: Andrijana Ristić, MA

All the papers in the sections Contributions, Polemics, Critic Reviews and Reviews are peer reviewed.
List of Reviewers:
Vesna Bikić, PhD, Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade
Saša Brajović, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy – Department of Art History
Marta Vukotić Lazar, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Priština, Faculty of Philosophy – Department of Art History of Art Department
Slobodan Jovanović, MA, Senior Curator, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade
Professor Dragan Jocić, PhD, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy – Department of Textile Engineering
Claudia Casali, PhD, International Museum of Ceramics, Faenza
Miroslav Karić, Independent Curator, Belgrade
Professor Tanja Manojlović, PhD, University of Arts in Belgrade, Faculty of Applied Arts – Department of Interior and Furniture Design
Ljiljana Miletić Abramović, MA, Museum Advisor, Director, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade
Jelena Perać, MA, Museum Advisor, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade
Bojana Popović, MA, Museum Advisor, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade
Jelena Popović, Senior Curator, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade
Vladimir Simić, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy – Department of Art History
Maja Studen, MA, Associate Professor, University of Arts in Belgrade, Faculty of Applied Arts – Costume Design Department

The Journal is indexed:
Ebsco, KoBSON, ERIH PLUS

Contents of the Jouurnal 14 / 2018 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)

Impresum
Impressum
Sadržaj
Contents
O Zborniku
About Journal
MILAN ANDRIĆ
IZ KONZERVATORSKE RADIONICE MUZEJA PRIMENJENE UMETNOSTI: kivot Stefana Prvovenčanog: konzervacija drveta, intarzije i metalnog okova
ACTIVITIES OF THE CONSERVATION WORKSHOP OF THE MUSEUM OF APPLIED ART: Coffin of Stefan the First-Crowned: conservation of wood, inlay and metal casing
Summary:
The coffin of the holy king Stefan the First-Crowned was made in 1607 by the "sinful master Antonje" on commission from Metropolitan Kyr Simeon. Since 1629, when the king's relics had been placed in it, the coffin witnessed the tumultuous Serbian history of the 17th and 18th centuries. Having been repeatedly moved far and wide in the territory of Serbia and Austria-Hungary, the coffin and the relics were returned to the monastery of Studenica in 1839. During World War I, the coffin was relocated once again, to be eventually placed in Studenica in 1919.

The coffin was subject to the necessary conservation treatment based on the expert assessment provided by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Kraljevo, in cooperation with the responsible institution, the National Museum in Kraljevo, and with the consent of the hegumen of Studenica, Tihon. The challenging conservation procedure, compliant with the current standards of museological practice, was carried out between November 2017 and November 2018 at the Conservation and Restoration Department of the Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade.

After the condition of the wood and inlay elements, the body of the coffin and the metal casing had been assessed, all materials used in the making of the coffin were subject to analysis. Surface cleaning tests were carried out using chemical procedures adjusted to the type of deposits. The metal casing and nails were treated with acid. The condition of the coffin had been documented in detail, after which it was undertaken to reconstruct the missing fragments and glue them to the surface.
ANGELINA MILOSAVLJEVIĆ
ŽIVA TELA: primenjena grafika u anatomskim atlasima Andree Vezalijusa iz 1543. i Johana Remelina iz 1609. godine
BODIES ALIVE: Applied Graphics in Anatomical Atlases by Andrea Vesalius of 1543 and Johann Remmelin of 1609
Abstract (original language):
Grafika se u istoriji umetnosti dugo posmatrala pretežno iz vizure umetničkih vrednosti, dok se, usled disciplinarne određenosti, njena utilitarnost često ostavljala po strani. NJena funkcija je određuje i žanrovski, kao devocionalnu, dekorativnu, didaktičku, političko-propagandnu, ilustrativnu, i slično. Grafika se do neslućenih razmera razvila i u formalnom, medijskom i funkcionalnom smislu u XVI veku, našavši svoj izvanredni izraz u trodimenzionalnim predstavama čovekove anatomije u anatomskim atlasima – posebno De humani corporis fabrica (1543) Andree Vezalijusa (Andrea Vesalius), a kasnije i u Catoptri Microcosmici (1609) Johana Remelina (Johann Remmelin), u kojima se prelamaju strategije otvaranja tela i pogleda ispod površine kože iskazane u renesansnoj umetničkoj teoriji i praksi, kao i u naučnim istraživanjima. U ovom radu želimo da ukažemo na to da su ilustratori pomenutih atlasa, zahvaljujući svojim umetničkim interesovanjima i saznanjima koja su prethodila striktno naučnim medicinskim istraživanjima, odbacili drevne modele shematizovanih dvodimenzionalnih prikaza i uveli kompleksne volumetrijske predstave. Formalnom višeslojnošću ovih predstava, postignutom specifičnim preklapanjem sastavnih delova koji omogućavaju uvid u anatomska tkanja ljudskog tela, ilustratori su u proces saznavanja uveli nove didaktičke metode. U saradnji sa naučnicima, oni su pronalazili načine da informacije pretoče u prepoznatljive i pristupačne modele, ali i da im daju kognitivnu strukturu. U toj vizuelizaciji saznanja, stvaranjem dinamičnih interaktivnih obrazaca kojim se moglo manipulisati po potrebi, umetnici su takođe donosili nova i revolucionarna, ali još uvek nedovoljno poznata, rešenja dizajna knjiga.
Key words (original language):
anatomski atlas, Andrea Vezalijus (1514–1564), Johan Remelin (1583–1632), renesansna grafika, renesansna umetnička teorija
Summary:
Graphic print has long been considered from the point of its aesthetic values, due to the conventional disciplinary boundaries, leaving its utilitarian values to the theory and history of graphic design. Its function defines its genres: devotional, decorative, didactic, political and propagandistic, illustrative, and similar, combined with its physical characteristics, its materiality, and formats. Prints gained their unprecedented scope in form, function and media in the 16th century, finding their exquisite expression in the three-dimensional representations of human anatomy in anatomical atlases, especially in Andrea Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica of 1543, and later on in Johann Remmelin's Catoptri Microcosmici of 1609. They reflect the strategies of opening the body and a look beneath the surface, the skin, expressed in the Renaissance art theory and practice, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, we would like to show that the illustrators of these atlases, owing to their artistic interests and knowledge that predated strictly scientific medical research, rejected the old models of schematized twodimensional images and introduced volumetric representations characterized by complexity and immediacy. With formal layering of these representations, achieved by specific overlapping of constituent parts that enable the insight into anatomical intricacies of the human body, the illustrators introduced new didactic methods into the process of acquiring and communication of knowledge. In cooperation with scientists, they found ways to translate information into recognizable and accessible models, giving them the cognitive structure. In this visualization of knowledge, in the creation of dynamic interactive patterns that could be manipulated according to need, artists also brought new and revolutionary, but still insufficiently known, solutions of book design.
MICHAEL MOORE
CONTROVERSIAL CROCKERY
KONTROVERZNA GRNČARIJA
Abstract:
Several pieces of industrially produced ceramics made ca. 1880 are secreted throughout the display cases of the National Museum of Ireland's Decorative Arts collection. These are mainly intended for domestic use, serving as teapots and plates, cups and saucers, though their surface decoration is incongruent with their functional design. The paper explores the use of what could be considered controversial imagery and text by referencing the pieces of ceramics telling a highly politicized story in the domestic settings of urban and rural homes in Ireland. It offers a brief consideration of colonial and post-colonial themes in the broader cultural or political context in Ireland, to help frame the discussion of Controversial Crockery in the Decorative Arts Collection of the National Museum of Ireland and beyond. The paper also examines other ceramic objects within Irish collections that tell multifaceted stories on the technical and aesthetic levels but also on levels relating to politics, history, folklore and material culture.
Key words:
Bally Brit pot, Erin Go Bragh tea set, Fonthill vase, Home Rule teapot, National Museum of Ireland, Carlow County Museum
Summary (translated):
Na početku rada konstatuje se da su predmeti od keramike prisutni kako u tehničkim i estetskim okvirima ukusa, tradicije, procesa i tehnike, tako i širem kulturno-političkom kontekstu, i iznosi se tvrnja da su domaći, funkcionalni, dekorativni predmeti prisutni na sasvim posebnom nivou postojanja, uključujući i kontekst istorijskog značaja, visokopolitizovane nacionalne težnje, podsticanje promena u zvaničnoj politici i borbu za nezavisnost. Primeri kojima se potkrepljuje ova tvrdnja jesu servis za čaj Erin go Bragh (Irska zauvek), sa predstavama vodećih zagovornika agrarne reforme u Irskoj, i čajnik Home Rule (Irska autonomija), koji slavi konačno donošenje Zakona o autonomiji Irske 1920. godine, kojim je osigurana nezavisnost 26 irskih gorfovija od Britanije. U radu se nadalje ispituju predmeti koji nisu vezani za političke težnje, a ipak imaju društveni i kulturni značaj izvan prvobitne namene, odnosno upotrebe u domaćinstvu. Kao primer se navodi vaza „Fonthil“, zbog svog neobičnog putovanja od Kine do Irske kroz domove crkvenih velikodostojnika i kraljeva, kroz čitavu Aziju i nekoliko evropskih zemalja, da bi na kraju postala najstariji primerak kineskog porcelana u evropskim kolekcijama. Drugi primer je posuda iz Balibrita koja potiče iz bronzanog doba, a otkrivena je tek u XX veku, kada se otisnula na još jedno nomadsko putovanje preko Atlantskog okeana, u oba smera, u relativno kratkom periodu od trideset godina. U radu se pokazuje da zahvaljujući pomenutim sluča- jevima, događajima i zgodama vezanim za ove sasvim obične posude, njihovo prisustvo u savremenoj materi- jalnoj kulturi ima daleko veći značaj od onoga koji bi mogao proisteći iz njihove izvorne, skromne namene.
JELENA ZDRAVKOVIĆ
INTERMEDIJALNOST I INTERTEKSTUALNOST U MODI KRAJEM XX VEKA. Studija slučaja: Rej Kavakubo
INTERMEDIALITY AND INTERTEXTUALITY IN FASHION AT THE END OF 20th CENTURY. CASE STUDY: REI KAWAKUBO
Abstract (original language):
U ovom radu, odevni predmet i modna kolekcija posmatrani su kao delo, odnosno tekst, dok se moda u odevanju posmatra kao umetnički medij. Osnovna teza je da se u prikazima mode XX veka intermedijalnost i intertekstualnost pojavljuju uporedo. Ova dva koncepta su gotovo neodvojiva. Predmet rada je, pre svega, postmoderna moda, tj. strategije i postupci kojima se ona služi, a koji se mogu uporediti sa postupcima vizuelnih umetnosti, slikarstva, arhitekture i vajarstva koji su primenjivani u umetnosti avangarde, neoavangarde i postavangarde. U tom smislu su, kao studija slučaja, izdvojeni radovi konceptualne modne kreatorke Rej Kavakubo (Rei Kawakubo) iz osamdesetih i devedesetih godina XX veka. Rad se oslanja, pre svega, na poststrukturalističko tumačenje teksta Julije Kristeve (Julia Kristeva) i Rolana Barta (Roland Barthes), teoriju citatnosti Dubravke Oraić Tolić, kao i na teorije Irine Rajevski (Irina Rajewsky) i Pavla Pavličića.
Key words (original language):
intermedijalnost, intertekstualnost, citatnost, moda, postmodernizam, Rej Kavakubo
Summary:
In this paper, garments and fashion collections are observed as a work of art or a text, whereas fashion itself is viewed as an artistic medium. The main hypothesis is that the 20th -century fashion shows simultaneously intermediality and intertextuality. These two concepts are almost inseparable. The subject matter of this paper is, first and foremost, postmodern fashion, i.e. its strategies and methods, which are comparable to the strategies and methods used in visual arts, such as painting, architecture and sculpture, during the avantgarde, neo-avant-garde and post-avant-garde periods. Accordingly, the work of Rei Kawakubo, a conceptual fashion designer, during the 1980s and 1990s serves as a case study. The paper relies on the post-structuralist interpretation of the text, shaped by Julia Kristeva and Roland Barthes, Dubravka Oraić Tolić's quotation theory, as well as Irena Rajewsky's and Pavao Pavličić's theories.

The strategies of conceptual artists emerged in fashion practice at the end of the 20th century. When Japanese fashion designers, among others Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto, appeared on the Western European scene, they launched a reevaluation of accepted fashion rules and codes and the idea of toying with the Western European notions about the body. The hybrid created by joining elements of clothing from Japan and Western European fashion corresponds to what Julia Kristeva describes as the way in which the text reads history and incorporates itself into it. Rei Kawakubo uses Japan's heritage through quotations in order to make the reader face, among other things, the stereotypical representation of the Other in the Western post-colonial world. Kawakubo uses intermediality by applying structures and materials specific to a certain medium and transferring them to another medium, which is illustrated by the selected works. One of the selected examples is the collection Body Meets Dress, Dress Meets Body, which also provides an example of medial transformation.

The key conclusion derived from the concept of intertextuality is that the role of the reader is vital for the path the reception of the work will take. The reader finds that it is not a coincidence that they recognize the work/ text and that it coincides with their reading memories and knowledge, that the author has purposely planted other texts within the work, thereby creating a polysemic piece of art. On the other hand, intermediality, the relationship between two artistic media, leads to the “borrowing” of creating principles and their transfer into a different medium. In any case, the goal of both intermediality and intertextuality is the same – the establishment of a link that could be artistically productive, which the case of Rei Kawakubo certainly confirms.
GORDANA KRSTIĆ-FAYE
SLAVOLJUB – SLAVKO VORKAPIĆ: plakat za srpski koncert i izložbu u Parizu 1916. godine
SLAVOLJUB–SLAVKO VORKAPIĆ: Poster for the Serbian Concert and Exhibition in Paris in 1916
Abstract (original language):
Slavoljub – Slavko Vorkapić (1894–1976) bio je slikar po obrazovanju, a nakon odlaska iz Pariza u Ameriku, 1920. godine, posvetio se filmu i radio je u Holivudu. Nakon prelaska preko Albanije sa srpskom vojskom i delom naroda tokom Prvog svetskog rata i dolaska u Pariz, Vorkapić je 1916. godine za Srpski koncert i izložbu (17–18. jun 1916) izradio plakat, štampan u tehnici litografije u poznatoj štampariji „Pišo“ (Pichot). Koncert i izložba su priređeni u okviru srpske ratne kampanje koja je trebalo da ukaže na tragičan položaj domovine nakon okupacije i da utiče na dobijanje pomoći. U radu se predstavlja i analizira nedovoljno poznat Vorkapićev plakat, kao i okolnosti i događaji povodom kojih je nastao. Zaključuje se da je ovaj rani i redak sačuvani Vorkapićev rad dragocen i kao istorijski izvor. Izuzetno je redak srpski ratni plakat koji sadrži likovnu predstavu. Sticajem okolnosti, Vorkapić se izradom plakata bavio u prelomnim životnim periodima, prvo kao mladi student izbeglica u Parizu, a potom kao siromašan emigrant u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama. Ova delatnost je doprinela njegovoj promociji u novim sredinama.
Key words (original language):
Slavoljub – Slavko Vorkapić, izložba, koncert, Pariz, plakat, Prvi svetski rat
Summary:
Serbian artist Slavoljub–Slavko Vorkapić was educated as a painter but when he left Paris in 1920 for the USA, he dedicated himself to filmmaking. Not many of his applied art works have survived. One of his earliest works is a poster for the Serbian Concert and Exhibition in 1916 in Paris. This is a very rare Serbian war poster with a figural representation. It is also interesting as a World War I document.

When Serbia was attacked at the end of 1915 by Germany, Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria, most of the population, the government and the army went to exile. Vorkapić arrived in Paris. While Serbia was occupied, its government in exile undertook awareness campaigns to obtain help. The Serbian Concert and Exhibition were part of those efforts.

Vorkapić's poster, printed in Paris, was done in the style of academicism. He sought to inform but also to remind the audience of the tragic position of his homeland. Serbia is presented as a resurrected young woman in pain, in the clouds. Her head is turned to her left and it rests on her hand, whereas the other arm is outstretched. Around her feet, there is a crown of thorns; the traditional cup, jug and towel are laid beside her. Two young soldiers, lying on the battlefield, can be seen below. One of them grips a knife tightly, symbolizing the extreme devotion of Serbian soldiers in the struggle for freedom. Mountains and the bright sun, symbolizing the belief in a better future, can be seen above the figure. The scenes are framed by an architectural structure resembling an antique temple.

This was the first public presentation of Vorkapić's work in Paris and it helped him gain attention, just like his posters for movies helped him get noticed in his early days in the United States.
JASMINA FUČKAN
REDATELJSKI KAPUT TOMISLAVA DURBEŠIĆA NA SCENI INTERPRETACIJE
TOMISLAV DURBEŠIĆ'S DIRECTOR'S COAT AS A SUBJECT OF INTERPRETATION
Abstract (original language):
Rad se bavi interpretacijom kaputa – muzejskog predmeta iz Zbirke tekstila Muzeja za umjetnost i obrt u Zagrebu – čija se muzealna vrijednost sa stajališta društvene semiotike tumači kao osobit vid autorske svjetonazorske sinteze modusa operandi i modusa vivendi znamenitog hrvatskog redatelja, književnika i dramskog pedagoga Tomislava Durbešića (Niš, 11. srpnja 1928 – Pariz, 14. kolovoza 2001). Analizira se kaput koji je Durbešić konceptualno preradio kako bi poslužio kao kazališni kostim u predstavi Svršetak igre Samuela Becketta (Semjuel Beket), postavljenoj 1990. godine na sceni Akademije dramske umjetnosti u Zagrebu. Zahvaljujući dramaturški vođenoj strategiji prenamjene za svrhu teatarskog eksperimenta, osnaženo je simboličko značenje kaputa, čime se on približava umjetničkom kontekstu neodade i konceptualne umjetnosti. Kroz status memorabilije ličnosti Tomislava Durbešića, kaput se iskazuje kao fluidni objekt na križištu fenomenološke semantike odjevnog predmeta, kazališnog kostima i umjetničkog djela asamblaža naglašene performativnosti. Shvaćen kao manifestna eksplikacija osobnih i teatarskih afiniteta, principa pa i humanističkog intelektualnog obzora jedne ličnosti koja je svoj estetički manifest provodila u život, taj kaput u individualnoj mjeri predstavlja doseg avangardne težnje za totalnim oblikovanjem kroz ukidanje granica između života i umjetnosti, a u kontekstu muzeja primijenjene umjetnosti omogućuje uvid u preplitanje različitih dimenzija kulture – mode, umjetnosti, teatra i svakodnevice.
Key words (original language):
Tomislav Durbešić, Zbirka tekstila i modnog pribora Muzeja za umjetnost i obrt, asamblaž, kaput, kazališni kostim
Summary:
Recent scholarly paradigms eliminate the possibility of perceiving clothing items as primarily material objects, and enable a shift toward interdisciplinary constructs and fluid interpretations of the given object as a vision in line with interpretation. In the Museum of Arts and Crafts, in the Textiles and Fashion Collection, the “director's coat” which belonged to the famous Croatian director, writer and drama pedagogue, Tomislav Durbešić, challenges interpretation as it steps outside the discourse system pertaining to the history of dress and men's fashion. Throughout his life, Durbešić combined into a single form of expression the creation of drama performances, expressing attitudes through writing and the artist's way of life, and musings about theatre – the reasons why theatre is more than the basics of the profession. He worked it into the core of recognition of basic societal and individual needs for theatre, encompassing social, psychological and anthropological aspects. The analysis of the conceptual reworkings of his director's coat in line with Neo- Dada assemblage allows us to express an array of relations which govern the interweaving of various performative principles, which in turn interact through art, fashion and theatre.
DIJANA METLIĆ, NATALIJA SIMIĆ
REFLEKSIJA MOMENTA: dekonstrukcija intimnog u fotografiji Frančeske Vudman
REFLECTION OF MOMENT: Deconstruction of the Intimate in the Photography of Francesca Woodman
Abstract (original language):
U radu će se analizirati dva različita odnosa prema ženskom telu – onaj koga uspostavljaju slikarke impresionizma Berta Moriso (Berthe Morisot) i Meri Kasat (Mary Cassatt), s jedne strane, i onaj koji, nasuprot njima, problematizuje fotografkinja Frančeska Vudman tokom osme decenije dvadesetog veka. Na taj način pokušavamo da pratimo razvoj identiteta u odnosu na svet u kome nastaje, posmatrajući ga kao mesto determinacije savremene subjektivnosti. U fokusu je analiza razvoja ženske subjektivnosti na relaciji telo−društvo−umetnost. Esej želi da pokrene pitanje o igri pogled / doživljaj pogleda, kroz uspostavljenu relaciju između ženskog tela i prostora u kome se pojavljuje, kako na primerima odabranih impresionističkih slika, tako i na primeru fotografija Frančeske Vudman. Uspostavljenim okvirom skreće se pažnja na binarne opozicije intimno−javno, dozvoljeno−zabranjeno kroz shvatanje tela kao praga za razumevanje sopstva u (prividno) izmenjenim društvenim okolnostima druge polovine XIX i druge polovine XX veka. U tom smislu, od posebnog je značaja naizmenična igra konstrukcije i dekonstrukcije telesnog posredstvom ogledala. Ono menja svoju funkciju od upotrebnog predmeta u impresionizmu do kultnog u radovima Frančeske Vudman. Na samom kraju, tekst pokušava da odgovori na pitanje da li se kroz proces suočavanja sa sopstvenim odrazom u ogledalu dolazi do oslobađanja od pritisaka istog ili, kako tvrdi Žak Lakan, „faza ogledala ilustruje konfliktnu prirodu dvojnog odnosa“.
Key words (original language):
Frančeska Vudman, impresionizam, ogledalo, refleksija, intimno, dekonstrukcija
Summary:
In this paper we analyse two different approaches towards female body – the one in the works of the Impressionist painters Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt and the other in the photography of Francesca Woodman during the 1970s. We examine the development of female identity and how it was shaped by the specific social conditions during the 19th and 20th centuries. In the works of Morisot and Cassatt, women are represented as a part of their households, excluded from all major social events, with emphasis on their isolation, solitude and the lack of communication. Women are often depicted while resting, dressing, combing or rehearsing the pose in front of the mirror, staying at home as an “inferior race”. They are rarely represented in theatres, where they feel vulnerable to a compromising male gaze. In her photo series House (1976) and Self-deceit (1978), Francesca Woodman approaches female subjectivity in a radically new way: she questions her identity so as to break established and wellpreserved boundaries of ideological spaces of femininity.

Discussing the binary opposition private–public, feminine–masculine, Woodman often uses a mirror as mobile paraphernalia, carrying it with her through deserted rooms of Victorian houses. Her fragmented reflection and hidden face question the implicated sexual attractiveness of an invisible female model, which is typically regarded as a passive object of male pleasure. Her naked blurred body merges with the surrounding or is obscured by peeling wallpapers. She is often on the verge of disappearing, evading the slightest possibility of being caught in a fixed identity. As an extremely progressive feminine voice, Francesca Woodman seeks to escape Morisot and Cassattʼs historical formation of sexed and classed subjects, and succeeds in breaking the conventional representation of women as mere objects of beauty. She dismisses banal narratives and examines the limits of her own body, revealing new opportunities for women and their future artistic activity.
SLOBODAN MIŠIĆ
PARAMETARSKI GENERISANA GEOMETRIJSKA FORMA U DIZAJNU ENTERIJERA I NAMEŠTAJA
PARAMETRICALLY GENERATED GEOMETRIC FORM IN INTERIOR AND FURNITURE DESIGN
Abstract (original language):
Parametarski generisana geometrijska forma zasniva se na međusobnom povezivanju geometrijskih elemenata, a krajnji proizvod je entitet zasnovan na parametrima. Na promenu jednog ili više parametara ostatak modela će reagovati promenom početnog geometrijskog oblika na osnovu unapred postavljenih asocijativnih pravila. Pojam parametra potiče iz matematike i odnosi se na upotrebu određenih varijabli uz pomoć kojih se krajnji rezultat funkcije ili sistema može menjati ili oblikovati. U arhitekturi je to proces istraživanja mogućnosti koje nudi odgovarajući trodimenzionalni model. Upotreba algoritama i softvera za parametarsko generisanje složenih formi nema za cilj usvajanje konačnog rešenja, već pruža izbor unutar skupa mogućih ishoda.

Analogno i digitalno u procesu parametarskog generisanja geometrijske forme u dizajnu enterijera i nameštaja nisu u potpunosti razdvojeni. Parametarski modelovan arhitektonski sklop isuviše je dominantan da bi dozvolio nezavisan dizajn enterijera. Dizajniranje arhitektonskog sklopa i dizajn enterijera i nameštaja unutar te arhitekture jedinstven je stvaralački poduhvat vođen parametarskim načelima dizajna. Enterijer oblikovan u skladu sa principima parametricizma čitamo kao skup oblika koje karakterišu autentična geometrija, kompozicioni zakoni i prostorni efekti. Karakteristika ovog skupa je utisak koherencije, uprkos bogatstvu različitosti ostvarenih prostornih struktura i dizajniranih proizvoda unutar njih.
Key words (original language):
geometrija, dizajn, enterijer, modelovanje, parametar
Summary:
Parametrically generated geometric form is based on the interconnection of geometric elements, with parameterbased end results. The designer uses appropriate software tools to define the relationships between the different parameters of the model. When one or more parameters are altered, the rest of the model will respond by changing the original geometric shape according to pre-defined associative rules. The term 'parameter' is adopted from mathematics and it refers to the use of parameters that can be altered so as to manipulate or alter the end result of an equation or a system. Geometric parametric modelling in architecture is a process of exploring options provided by a 3D model in order to obtain an optimal solution according to pre-defined goals. Modern graphic software for geometric form modelling is necessary in all current and future efforts in this field.

There is no clear boundary between the analogue and digital approach to generating a geometric form in interior and furniture design. The design process often begins with sketches, which are later transposed into the field of digital geometric form modelling. Parametrically modelled architectural structure is too dominant to allow independent interior design, accordingly, it is not justified to interpret them as two separate processes. The design of an architectural structure and interior and furniture design within the structure is a unique creative enterprise guided by the parametric principles of design. The interior shaped according to parametric principles is perceived as a set of shapes with an authentic geometry, composition rules and spatial effects. This set is characterized by a sense of coherence in spite of the differences among the spatial structures and designed objects within. The design is not characterized by monotonous repetition as our field of vision is constantly altered, while the dense, intensely filled zones alternate with large calm areas. These compositions are usually polycentric and multidirectional. All these characteristics are a result of multiple perspectival projections enabled by projective geometry.

As design must satisfy both functional and formal demands, one cannot simply add elements onto geometric parametric modelling matrix without aiming for a comprehensive formal solution. Parametrically modelled geometric form in interior and furniture design is a generic component of design rather than an isolated, special place.
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