Journal 1 / 2005 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
ISSN 2466-460X (Online)
ISSN 0522-8328 (Printed edition)
PDF of the printed edition (9.0 MB)
Editor in Chief: Ivanka Zorić, Director of MAA
Issue Editor: Dr. Bojana Radojković
Marija Bujić Dr. Ivanka Gergova Ivanka Zorić Bojana Popović M.A. Dr. Bojana Radojković Dr. Miroslav Timotijević
Issue Editorial Assistant: Andrijana MatajisAll the papers in the sections Contributions, Polemics, Critic Reviews and Reviews are peer reviewed.
Contents of the Jouurnal 1 / 2005 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
SERBIAN CHURCH TEXTILE FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE 15th TO THE END OF THE 17th CENTURIES
Earlier Byzantine models dominate in iconography, sometimes modified, however, due to the time distance.Western, as well as Russian, influences were more visibly accepted during the 17th century. They are more present in details of compositions then in their whole.
Beside Byzantine, the influences of the West are noticeable in the decoration of textile objects, especially in the floral decoration, although it may also be marked by Oriental models, especially Middle Eastern and Persian. In geometric decoration of the textile there appear, along with Byzantine, decorative elements characteristic of remote China. These elements are also found in fresco painting of the earlier period.
During the 17th century, the predominant influence on the ornamentation, especially floral, comes from the Southern, Greek, regions and the Aegean islands (at that time under the strong influence of Venetian Republic). The influences also come from Athos and Levant.
The choice of the fabrics, as well as the embroidery itself, is based on the contrast of the base and the embroidered ornament, but in some objects they fuse. Satin, velvet and, rarely, damascus were used as foundation. The embroidery was made with precoius gilded thread, sometimes entwined with the multicoloured silk thread or the silk thread of the same colour. The choice of the stiches corresponds to those used in older periods, but new ones appear, too. Sometimes various metal plates, under the influence of the West and Russia, or spirally entwined metal threads and, only rarely, mother of pearl, appear sewed on the fabric.
The objects of sacral character decorated with embroidery preserved on our terrain were created from the middle of the 15th to the end of the 17th century, and are rarely of monumental dimensions; usually, they are small in format. Some of them in the stylistic and iconographic sense, as well as in the method of production, attain high artistic level, although those of more modest artistic values are more frequent. They reflect the economic situation, as well as artistic capabilities of their creators and comissioners. Some of the items are characterized by the influence of icon painting. They are rarely dated and rarely bear artist’s signature. However, more often they feature the names of donors. This also speaks of more difficult economic situation of our population during that period, especially in the 17th century, but it also points to the constant need of the people to give gifts to the churches and monasteries.
The objects of sacral character decorated with embroidery belong to groups of similar objects, according to stylistic and iconographic characteristics. On the basis of analogies found in literature, especially during the inspection of the preserved material found in church and monastic treasuries, as well as in museums, to which I had an access, I have been able to place them more accurately in both time and space.
– OD MOLITVE DO SUVENIRA
RUSSIAN METAL ICONS
– FROM PRAYER TO SOUVENIR
IZ ZBIRKE MUZEJA PRIMEWENE UMETNOSTI U BEOGRADU
THE IMAGE OF WOMAN IN THE PHOTOGRAPHS BY MILAN JOVANOVIĆ
FROM THE COLLECTION IN THE MUSEUM OF THE APPLIED ART IN BELGRADE
The most prominent studio in Belgrade at the turn of the centuries belonged to the court photographer Milan Jovanović. In taking the photographs of the members of bourgeois class, which constitute the larger part of his opus, Jovanović had to follow their requests that were largely defined by current social conventions. Thus, the portrait photographs by Milan Jovanović represent a document of its own kind, speaking about urban life and social relations in Serbia at the turn of the centuries. In this essay they served as an illustration for the research into position of woman in Serbia of that time.
ASYMMETRIES OF LANGUAGE AND SIGHT: INTRODUCTION TO A PHILOSOPHY OF ART
Representation is a structural, epistemological, semantic and technical method of creating or producing a work of art which, visually and optically, refers to a real or fictional object, being, situation, or event.
Visual meta-language is the signification and structural order of a visual work of art by means of which other works of art are shown and represented, as well as aspects of the art world, stylistic patterns, genre rules and typified schemes, ways of establishing of meaning in a work of art, language-pictorial games, visual properties of a work of art, and conceptual and ideological over determinations.
The mimesis of mimesis (representation of the represented) is a Post-modernist eclectic (post-metaphysical, ost-historical) conception of art whereby a painting does not represent reality, the original essence of art, or the direct emotions of the artist.
THE TECHNIQUES OF PRODUCTION OF AMBER BEADS FOUND IN ST. PETER’S CHURCH IN NOVI PAZAR
On the basis of the traces of treatment of the half-products and the finished amber beads, it is possible to follow the production process and get a notion of applied technology. The traces of treatment, noticed on our amber material for the first time, point to manual production as well as the use of a (primitive) machine and of a tool. Big differences in quality of one type of beads produced in the same way, manually or with a machine, clearly indicate different hands, pointing to the existence of either one workshop with a number of workers, or several smaller workshops, and they speak in favour of local production.
Observations of some approaches to the process of production contribute to our notion of practice in the treatment of amber in the Central Balkans during the Iron Age.
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE RESEARCH INTO THE LONG-NECK CYLINDRICAL BOTTLES WITH STRIGILLATED DECORATION
There is an extreme similarity between our example and a small bottle from The Hans Cohn Collection, dated into the 16th century. Its place of its provenience is most probably Murano. Although almost identical with the bottle from The Museum of the Applied Arts, it differs in size, the colour of glass, the direction of the flutes and somewhat in shape.
On the other hand, two whole long-neck cylindrical bottles with strigillated decoration and a dozen of fragments, which are in size, form and colour of glass almost identical with the bottle from The Museum of the Applied Art were unearthed in Lower Town of The Belgrade Fortress, during archaeological excavations in 1978. These were found in the remainder of a building with more recent ceramic findings and one metal, partly recognizable object (a chit or a button). On the basis of the excavated archaeological material, the building is dated into the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries.
Sremska Mitrovica fell into Austrian arms after almost two centuries of Turkish rule, during the war of 1710-1718. As a trading center on Sava it attracted mostly the residents of the surrounding area.Modest trade existed between Sremska Mitrovica and other towns, as well as with Belgrade, Vienna and Budapest. At the beginning of the 19th century there existed a glassmaking activity, and in the middle of the century three glassmakers worked in the town.
The production of glass in Venice was in decline at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, but the glas smaking based on its tradition continued to prosper in other European countries, such as Bohemia and Austria. Historic conditions in this time period as well as the great similarity with bottles produced in Styria point to Austria as a possible exporter of this type of bottles, to Mitrovica within its boundaries, and to Belgrade that largely bought glass from the neighbouring Empire.
THE PLACE AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PAVEL OVČINJIKOV IN RUSSIAN GOLDSMITHING
He owned factories in Moscow and Petersburg in which turnover rose with a dizzying success, and he was the founder of the first crafts school in Russia in which a large number of students was trained. One of the founders of Russian style in making of gold and silver objects in which the national and the centuries-old tradition of orthodox culture merged, and which was the leading art force in Russia from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. That period is called „the golden age“ of Russian silver.
In the works of Pavel Ovčinjikov the national ideas were expressed in subject, that is, in form and ornament. The revival of the Old-Russian forms and ornament, as well as the revival of classical jewelry, namely, the Old-Russian techniques of production (enamel, glass enamel), and bringing it to the contemporary level, made the works of his factory to stand out with originality and extreme mastership.
Ovčinjikov has a great merit in creation of the arts and crafts school and the perfect system of education in production of silver and gold objects and the development of the jeweler’s craft. The best-known artists and painters of that time worked for him, designing and modeling the objects.
He presented his works in many exhibitions in Russia and other countries: The Moscow Manufacture Exhibition in 1865, The International Exhibition in Paris in 1867, The World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873, and Chicago in 1893, The World Exhibition in Paris in 1900.
Pavel Ovčinjikov was greatly respected and received the honourable citizenship of Moscow; he was city representative at The Moscow Duma, at The Trade of Commerce, and The Moscow Stock Exchange Committee. He also held an honourable title of the Supplier for the Court of the Heir to the Throne, Prince Aleksandar Aleksandrovič (Nicolaevič).
Many Russian and world museums, preserve the works made in the factory of Pavel Ovčinjikov and his heirs Michael, Alexander, Paul and Nicolas Pavlovič (The State-Historical Museum in Moscow, The Russian Museum of the Decorative and Applied Arts in Moscow, The Hillwood Museums and Gardens in Washington, D.C., and other museums).
The Ethnographic Museum in Belgrade possesses the richest collection of Russian gold and silver objects in the country. It features the objects produced in the shops of the best-known Russian jewelers and silversmiths of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Those made in the shop of Pavel Akimov Ovčinjikov stand out with their significance, beauty and exeptionality of form and ornament, as well as the virtuosity of the production.
ON CLOCKS FROM THE COLLECTION IN THE MUSEUM OF VOJVODINA
The Museum has been interested in clocks, objects of a narrowly defined use, primarily because of their artistic, namely visual and stylistic characteristics. The criterion and the principle of acquisition led to the purchase and the collection of the objects that were made or used in Vojvodina. They were bought directly from the families, their heirs or collectors from this region. The clocks come from wealthy families, where they were preserved as marks of certain times that cherished the taste for art objects and their luxurious appearance. As an object clearly utilitarian in character, in a domestic ambience clock was also a decorative object with artistic design that reflected the taste as well as the social status of the commissioner.
The oldest clocks in the collection, the Baroque tower clock and Rococo and Classicist tabernacle clocks, come from 18th century. The need for clocks grew with the pace of everyday life at the beginning of the 19th century, and it was reflected in a rich typology of clocks during the Bidermaier, the last grand style. After the Neo-Rococo, there comes a period of stylistic disintegration that led to the retrospection of historic styles in every area of the applied arts.
With industrialization in the second half of the 19th century, wide masses of people needed an accurate, movable and cheap clock, the principal function of which consisted in its being an alarm clock. The alarm clock was the first mass-produced functional clock. The Collection features the alarm clocks of famous European firms, such as Junghans, Kintzl, Gustav Becker, Doksa and Zenith.
An example of the late Middle European Secession also exists in the Collection, and an example of Art Deco clock represents the clean and bold forms in harmony with „the aesthetic of the machine“.
After the Second World War, clocks tend to grow smaller. The electric clocks, either the battery operated ones or the plugged- in ones, grew popular. The industrial production in Yugoslavia – in the beginning limited to alarm clocks, and to be extended to the production of the wall, desk and street clocks – starts at the beginning of the 50’s, with opening of the „Insa“ clock factory in Zemun. Thus clocks ceased to be an imported luxury item.
GOLD EMBROIDERY WITH THE NAME OF THE EMPEROR IVAN ALEXANDER FROM THE CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS AT STANIČENJE DOCUMENTS AND ECONSTRUCTION
In this paper we deal with the reconstruction of the embroidered textile, apart from its detailed description, made during its first conservation in 1977, and then during the second in 1998, together with the assumptions about possible reconstruction that was not made during the conservations. The reconstruction of the fabric, during the second conservation, was made on the basis of those better-preserved parts of the gold embroidery and the direction of the woof, as well as the information offered by the photo documentation made during the first conservation treatment. As the documentation at our disposal did not give detailed information about the appearance of the fragments of the fabric in situ, in the latter conservation treatment the starting point was the reconstruction made during the first one, which consequently underwent certain changes. It should be stated that it is not possible to give any certain reconstruction of the fabric without an investigation into the complete field documentation.
During the second conservation treatment, 75 fragments were found. The dimensions of the then reconstructed strips are: the first 8.5 × 49 cm, the second 8.5 × 48 cm, the third 8 × 46.5 cm, the fourth 8.3 × 48 cm, the fifth 8.2 × 47.5 cm, the sixth 7.5 × 47.5 cm; the dimensions of the fragment 24 are 7.5 x 9.3 cm. Strips with numbers 1 to 5 had the same motif: a plant with a flower and buds – a deer – a plant with a flower and buds – a two headed eagle – a plant with buds – a crane – a plant with buds and a flower –an inscribed plate surrounded by plants. The sixth strip is decorated with a motif of a double arcade, above which one eagle is preserved. The photographs shot during the first conservation that witness that some fragments had been lost between the first and the second conservation, indicate that at first there was one more composition with motifs in a wreath, apart from the reconstructed ones.
Detailed descriptions and photographs of the fragments of the embroidered textile from St. Nicholas at Staničenjo will be, together with the data from the field documentation and a text by R. Ljubinković, as well as the conservation photodocumentation, is the starting point for new attempts to reconstruct the fabric and the vestment.
Izložba Pirotski ćilimi, Muzej primewene umetnosti, Beograd, od 6. novembra 2001. do 10. februara 2002. Godine
Exhibition Pirot Kilim, Museum of the Applied Art, Belgrade, November 6, 2001 – February 10, 2002
Not many countries in the world have preserved the traditional ethnic decorative art, which is at the same time varied and full of content. In this treasury, textile production achieved high level, and rug production, especially in Pirot, belongs to works of remarkable stylistic characteristics, of unique content, colour scheme and interpretations, which also strongly influenced other circles.
The author represented a significant segment of Serbian traditional applied arts in the Exhibition which represents characteristics of the development of the Pirot kilim, weaving, the content of ornamental motifs, the use, and so on. The material is thoroughly studied, professionally exhibited and allows a thorough knowing of this part of cultural heritage. The exhibition is followed by an analytical and scientific catalogue (in Serbian and French) written by Milena Vitković-Žikić. It features a large number of sketches, drawings and photographs. Although the object of the exhibition has already been a subject of studies and expositions, the author maganed to add several links in the chain for better understanding of rug weaving in Pirot and to shed light on both known and new facts. This is the reason for which, I believe, it was altogether purposeful to mark the Museum’s Day in 2001 by the exhibition Pirot Kilim.
Izložba realizovanih enterijera 2001-2002, Galerija Singidunum, Begrad, od 16. do 26. aprila 2002. godine
G:DSGN – THE COSMOPOLITAN SHINE OF BELGRADE INTERIORS NEW GENERATION
Exhibition of realized interiors 2001-2002, Gallery Singidunum, Belgrade, from April 16 – April 26, 2002
Ivan Sotirov, Čiprovska zlatarska škola : sredata na XVI – načaloto na XVIII vek Sofiя, 2001.
VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF GOLDSMITHING IN THE BALKANS DURING THE OTTOMAN RULE
Sotirov’s work is a challenge to students, especially his significant theses that change some assumptions on the development of Bulgarian goldsmithing during the Ottoman rule.
Vesna Bikić, Belgrade Ceramics in the 16th – 17th Century, Archaeological Institute, Belgrade, 2003, 187 text pages, 420 drawings, 35 color photographs, 7 pages of bibliography, 13 pages of summary in English
The Typology of town ceramics of the 16th and the 17th century includes 19 different forms, 11 of them are dishes and 8 are objects used in everyday life of Belgrade inhabitants of that time. Among the dishes, used for preparing, cooking and baking food, storing groceries or serving food and drinks, the most diversified are the bowls (34 types) and pots (33). The jugs (26), lids (16), plates (7), pitchers (12), goblets (17), saltshaker (1), earthenware pans (11), strainers (3) and jars (6) are also represented. There are, besides the dishes, various ceramics artifacts as pipes, inkwells, toys, cups, flutes. Objects that were integral parts of interiors were, as well, numerous: candlesticks, stoves, acoustics resonators. There also appear objects for private use as night pots.
The characteristics of the ceramics from the mentioned period of continuous Turkish rule (1521 – 1688), that represents a transitional phase of production between medieval and modern times folk ceramics, are discussed in the next chapter. Three groups are distinguished, two of them representing direct inheritance from the Middle Ages, from the Serbian provinces and central Europe, and the third is Osmanli ceramics, imbued with ceramics inheritance of China, Persia and Byzantium. The Central European influences already presented through the Late Byzantine and Balkan (Serbia and Bulgaria) production were incorporated to a great extent just after the Turkish conquest of south Hungary, while the ceramics from the Osmanli epoch arrived to the territory of Belgrade in the third decade of the 16th century.
In this way systematized ceramics material in the monograph Belgrade Ceramics in the 16th – 17th Century could be a stimulus for the continuation of studying and publishing abundant unpublished ceramics material from the Osmanli epoch from the other sites at the territory of Serbia.
Sava Sandic: Small Decorative and Applied Plastic, Museum of Applied Art, Belgrade, 2002, 92 text pages, 71 black and white photographs, 14 color tables, 3 pages of bibliography, summary in English
The Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade, publishing the monography with the title „Small Decorative and Applied Plastic“ (2002), wanted to affirm and present Sava Sandic to the public as a special master of the series of objects from the field of applied arts and it succeded in that task. Untill then those artistic works remained, to a certain degree, in the shadow of his highly respected sculptural activities. From the monography it can be concluded, in addition to everything else, that Sandic in his creativity did not have two criterions – „higher“ for the sculpture and „lower“ for the small plastic and various object of applied art. The rich experience in sculptoral work and exceptional knowledge and control over the different materials (stone, wood, marble, bone, plaster, copper, silver...) were useful during manufacture of the countless lockets, reliefs, medallions, medals, portrets, ornamental objects, decorative plates, bowls, vases, ashtrays, unique jawelries...He was occupied with this activity continuously – from the beginning of his career to nowdays.
THE REVIEW OF THE MUSEUM EXHIBITION ACTIVITIES FROM 1987 TO 2004
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSEUM OF APPLIED ART (1955-1987)